15th May 1874 - 4th February 1974

"A Tribute"


Covering Seventy Five years of dedicated service to the Bahá'í Faith,

Culminating in his appointment by Shoghi Effendi as his successor

Author: Franklin Schlatter

Charles Mason-Remey was born in America on 15th May, 1874. His paternal grandmother was a descendant of John Howland who came over on the Mayflower and was one of the original settlers at the Plymouth Bay colony in 1620. Charles Mason Remey had the whole Mayflower Pilgrim fathers tradition to draw upon. His father's family, the Remeys, were of French Huguenot stock, having descended from Jacob Remey who landed in Virginia in 1654. (Father: Rear Admiral George Collier Remey, U.S.Navy). (From: Charles Mason Remey and the Baha'i Faith by Francis C. Spataro).

Mason Remey married Gertrude Heim Klemm in Paris on 17th July, 1931, and she died in Washington, D.C. 5th August, 1932. One of his architectural works is the Remeum at Pohick Church Glebe, Fairfax County, Virginia (a memorial to his parents and their forebears that is a family mausoleum).

Mason Remey writes: My forebears were early American Colonials of New England in the north and Virginia in the south. I was brought up in the Christian Faith as taught by the Episcopal Church. The members of the church, as you know, although always orthodox may be anything from Catholic upon one hand to Protestant on the other. While this church is usually classed as Protestant, its Prayer Book proclaims it to be "The Holy Catholic Apostolic Church". My inheritance was from the Catholic interpretation of Christianity rather than from the Protestant attitude. With this Catholic background it was the most logical and natural thing in the world for me to accept the Bahá'í message without question as I did when I heard it in 1899-1900 from May Ellis Bowles (later Mrs. Sutherland Maxwell, mother of Mary Maxwell 'Rúhíyyih Khánum'), because the Holy Catholic Church teaches the Second Coming of Christ - The Christ to come manifesting as the Lord of Creation - the Prince of Peace - coming to establish "His Kingdom upon Earth as it is in Heaven". From New England in the north and Virginia in the south, my forebears came into the middle west where I was born in 1874 at a town on the Mississippi River, two hundred and ten miles from Chicago, not far distant from the geographical center of the United States, this land that our Beloved Guardian (Shoghi Effendi) has called "The Cradle of the Administration of the Bahá'í Faith."

1898-1903. Mason Remey attended the Ecole des Beaux Arts, and graduated with "Architect Diploma" par le Gouvernment Francais. (From Charles Mason Remey and the Baha'i Faith by Francis C. Spataro).

September 1898. Phoebe Hearst arrived in Paris, bound for Akka. Tending her apartment was a Mrs. Bolles, her son Randolph and her daughter May. May (Bolles, later Maxwell) (Born 14th January 1870 in Englewood, New Jersey) sensed that Hearst and her companions - who included Lua and Edward Getsinger and Ibrahim Kheiralla - were embarking on a religious mission and insisted that she knew about it. They told her about the Bahá'í Faith and she became a believer, the FIRST ON THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT. May Bolles accompanied the pilgrimage party and in the spring of 1899 returned to Paris on fire with love for 'Abdu'l-Bahá. She told Edith MacKaye who became second to accept in Paris. The third person was Charles Mason-Remey (1874-1974). Scion of a prominent naval family in Washington DC. He had felt himself to be an Orthodox Christian.

1899 — 1900 Taught the Faith by May Ellis Bowles (Later Mrs. May Sutherland-Maxwell, the mother of Rúhíyyih Khánum), Charles Mason Remey Declared 31st December, 1899. Charles Mason Remey would later become close to the members of the Holy Family: Bahá'u'lláh's eldest Son and Successor, 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'u'lláh's daughter, Bahiyyih Khánum and His great grandsons, Shoghi Effendi and Ruhi Afnan.

1901 - 1904. Mirza Abu'l-Fadl visited America. It was considered that he was by far the most learned Bahá'í. Mason Remey called him 'the real pioneer teacher to America'.

1901-1902. 'Abdu'l-Bahá wrote to Mason Remey saying that whenever opportunity is available the believers in Washington must go to Baltimore to teach the Faith. Members visited the city and on 31st January 1902 over 100 residents heard Fitz-Gerald speak about bible prophesy.

February 1905. Charles Mason Remey's first pamphlet was published, which was one of the first pamphlets on the Bahá'í Faith published by an American.

In December 1905 Adolph Dahl, his wife and son became Bahá'ís in Philadelphia through Charles Mason Remey.

By 1906 Washington D.C. had two highly capable Bahá'ís, Charles Mason Remey - who was beginning to write pamphlets and Ahmad Sohrab who was a major translator of Tablets written by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Mason Remey preferred to issue his publications himself, and financed them personally.

In May 1906 North Hudson received a letter from Mason Remey about the importance of celebrating 23rd May as it was the Birthday of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the Declaration of the Bab, consequently the community decided to hold a meeting. Apart from this, North Hudson has not been known to have commemorated Bahá'í Holy Days.

3rd May 1906. A Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Mason Remey of tremendous importance as it portended his role in the distant future as the second Guardian of the Faith.

"Verily I beseech God to make thee confirmed under all circumstances. Do not become despondent neither be thou sad. Ere long, thy Lord shall make thee as a sign of guidance among mankind"

1906 William Hooper Harris received a Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá asking him to undertake an international teaching trip. He had a job and a family to support but the New York Bahá'ís wished to see 'Abdu'l-Bahá's request fulfilled. On behalf of the New York Board of Counsel, Charles Mason Remey wrote a circular letter to all North American Bahá'ís announcing the establishment of a Hooper Harris fund. The New York Bahá'ís raised $1,200 for the trip and for the support of Gertrude Harris and the Harris children while Hooper was away.

1907. Charles Mason Remey., endeavored to organise a consultative body in Washington. The Working Committee was formed on 14th March, 1907. 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent a Tablet to Mason Remey which read: "The establishment of the elected committee of which thou gavest news in thy letter hath my full approval. The founding of such a body will redound to the distinction of the Faith of God, and provide a means whereby the divine message may be diffused throughout those parts. My fervent hope is that this body will so develop from day to day that it will become an assemblage of the All Merciful."

1907 or 1908 'Abdu'l-Bahá, in oral instructions to Charles Mason Remey, He had urged them (the Washington Bahá'is) to help Chicago (not Washington D.C.) instead. As a result, the Washington Bahá'ís became a major force in the Temple work.

1907 The Washington, DC Bahá'ís made a modest proposal: a leaflet that would be issued at stated intervals from the Washington Assembly' and would contain "Tablets and Instructions from the Master" to the American believers as well as any letter or articles on the teachings which had been approved. The leaflet would be free, presumably meaning that Charles Mason Remey, who proposed the publication, would pay for it. In August 1907 'Abdu'l-Bahá cautiously endorsed the idea, suggesting it be produced twice per year.

December 1907. Charles Mason Remey visited Chicago and suggested that Washington send out a series of circular letters proposing the establishment of a 'temple branch' of a national Temple organization in every local Bahá'í community on the continent. The House of Spirituality of Washington D.C. (later to be designated Local Spiritual Assembly) would be the national co-ordinating body of the organization and heartily endorsed the proposal.

Winter 1908. Mason Remey wrote to 'Abdu'l-Bahá that he wished to spend the forthcoming summer traveling for the Bahá'í Faith in Iran and Russia, and about 23rd March 1908 he received a Tablet granting permission, and decided to travel with Sidney Sprague.

25th April, 1908 Charles Mason Remey and Sidney Sprague sailed from New York and visited Bahá'ís in England and Germany on their way to Akká, where they spoke with 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Mason Remey went to Constantinople, then by sea to Odessa, and train to Baku. He addressed several meetings. He sailed across the Caspian Sea then by train to Ishqabad where he and Sidney Sprague received a great welcome. Remey visited the Ishqabad Bahá'í House of Worship, the first one to be built in the world, and which was almost finished. Because Remey was actively involved in the effort to build a House of Worship in North America, to see the one in Ishqabad and examine it in full detail was a great opportunity. His description of it and its accompanying dependencies is the most complete one available in English. The explanation of it can be found on page 290/291 in "The Bahá'í Faith in America" by Robert H. Stockman. One of the first decisions made by the Chicago House of Spirituality in planning the first national Bahá'í Convention was to have Mason Remey speak on the 'Ishqabad Temple.

In Teheran, Sprague and Mason Remey conducted a seemingly endless round of private meetings and visits to the homes of Bahá'ís for tea. On one afternoon Tah'rih Khánum, who Mason Remey described as "an enlightened soul, holding advanced ideas, not gleaned from foreign sources," Mason Remey writes: "Our hostess had for some time past discarded her veil and with her husband received men in her house and garden, yet she was obliged , as she explained to us, to veil in the streets on account of attracting too much attention. On this afternoon she was holding two receptions at once. Twenty or more of us men were in one room, while in an adjoining room, separated from us by a curtain, was a party of twelve or fifteen ladies. After the chanting of tablets, Mr. Sprague and I were asked to tell the ladies in the next room something about their sisters in the West, which we did to the best of our ability, Mr. Sprague speaking in Persian, while my words were translated and spoken through the curtain to the listeners on the other side. As we spoke of the freedom and independence and higher education of the women in the West, the Khánum (lady) became more enthusiastic, until finally, she went to the doorway and drawing the curtain, began very earnestly speaking to the people in the next room. After the expiration of several minutes her words had the desired effect, for the women arose and drawing aside their veils with one accord entered the room. . . ."

Mason Remey's visit resulted in two new influences of the Persian Bahá'ís on the American Bahá'í Community. The first was the awareness of the limitations imposed on Persian Bahá'í women and the desire to help them. Remey urged American Bahá'í women to go to Iran as physicians, nurses and teachers–and one might add, as examples–and soon they did.

The visit of Mason Remey and Sprague to Iran strengthened the ties binding the American and Persian Bahá'í Communities.

Summer of 1908. Washington DC. When Charles Mason Remey returned from his trip to Persia he found that the opposition to the Washington D.C. Working Committee had again surfaced so strongly that it had to be disbanded again. As a result, reported Mason Remey, everything came to a standstill. The community reestablished the Working Committee in early 1909.

1909 Ahmad Sohrab returned to Washington D.C. where he was living and spoke to prominent Bahá'ís there about the idea of establishing an association dedicated to the educational, economic and commercial development of Iran and its Bahá'í community. Washington was the ideal headquarters for such an establishment. Sohrab was young, articulate and fluent in the English language, and Charles Mason Remey was an excellent organizer and possessed considerable financial means. The introductory meeting took place on 8th January 1910, at which 350 people, Bahá'ís and non Bahá'ís, including many members of high society attended.

October 1908. Mason Remey's second pamphlet, called "The Message of Unity" was produced with more information on the Bahá'í Teachings. The pamphlet was the first to emphasize unity as a basic Bahá'í teaching, and also on personal qualities such as tolerance, gentleness and love, constantly stressed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Some extracts include:

RELIGIOUS GOVERNMENT. "The House of Justice," a central assembly, the members of which are selected by general vote, is to preside over the affairs of the Baha'i world. Its work, apart from its purely religious character, has to do with charitable and educational matters and the general welfare of the people.

RELIGIOUS UNITY. All men are free to believe and to worship as they will, but they are exhorted to unite in the universal faith of Bahá, for only through spiritual unity will mankind attain the highest development.

WORSHIP. Prayer supplemented by a pure and useful life in this world form the elements of true worship. Faith without works is not acceptable.

Monday 22nd March 1909 the Bahá'í Convention adjourned and reconvened immediately as the Bahá'í Temple Unity. At the afternoon session the committee announced it recommendation: an Executive Board, including Charles Mason Remey and other believers from Chicago, New York, Washington, Cincinnati, Kenosha and the San Francisco area. The following day the temple site was approved.

  1. Charles Mason Remey noted: At present, now a systematic arrangement has been devised for keeping the various assemblies informed of the progress of the temple work. If the peoples interest is to be kept up, they must be in regular and constant communication with the centre. Now Mrs. True and others are writing hundreds of letters - long hand - and expending energy and time and only reaching a limited number of people. An organ is needed to hold the Believers in communication. The Temple work needs this more than anything else.....

  1. The Bahá'í Faith also continued to grow in Hawaii. By November 1909 the islands had eleven Bahá'ís. In December, Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven visited Hawaii on their round the world tour. With two visiting speakers available, the Honolulu Bahá'ís decided to hold their first public meeting. Mason Remey and Struven also stressed the importance of establishing an organization. Consequently in January 1910 the Honolulu Bahá'ís officially established a community and elected officers.

Late 1909 or early 1910. (See American Bahá'i News for April 1910) Mason Remey and Howard Struven arrived in Japan. There they located Professor Mulvi Barakatullah, a Bahá'í sympathizer who had studied the Faith in New York. He arranged a large Bahá'í meeting at the YMCA Auditorium in Tokyo. After visits to Yokohama, Kobe, Kyoto and Nagasaki, Mason Remey Howard Struven sailed for Shanghai, where a Persian Bahá'í met them. After making several good contacts they sailed for Singapore and thence to Rangoon, Burma. Remey and Struven then went to Mandalay for a five day visit. They stayed in its Mashriqu'l-Adhkár and met with the Bahá'í Community every afternoon and evening. Since the visit of Ober and Harris the Mandalay Bahá'ís had organized an informal TMBA, a Young Men's Bahá'í Association' patterned after the YMCA.

February 1910, Thornton Chase (the first Bahá’í in America) received a forty-six page letter from Charles Mason-Remey, in which he described, in great detail, the history of almost all the troubles that had occurred in the New York and Washington Bahá'í Communities!

In India (1910?) Mason Remey and Struven visited Calcutta, Baroda, Banaras, Cornpau, Agra, Delhi and Mount Aboo speaking at a variety of different places.

From Bombay, Mason Remey and Struven sailed to Akka, where 'Abdu'l-Bahá said to them "Encourage the Bahá'ís to hasten to India, both men and women teachers. In India, in particular, women teachers are needed. "Delay Not".

The route taken by Mason Remey and Struven became a model for other Occidental Bahá'ís.

The travels of Harris, Ober, Sprague, Mason Remey, Struven, Bethlen, Dreyfus and Barney marked the beginning of efforts by Occidental Bahá'ís, and especially by American Bahá'ís, to serve the Faith globally.

1910 - 1911. Talking of this period Robert H. Stockman who wrote the book "The Bahá'í Faith in America" said "Charles Mason Remey became one of America's most active and knowledgeable Bahá'ís".

November 1909 - May 1910. Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven circled the globe teaching Bahá'í Faith.

24th June, 1910. Bahá'í News. Vol.1. No.6. Washington D.C. "Since the last letter from Washington, there have been several happenings of importance here. On Saturday 4th June, Mr. Charles Mason Remey returned, after an absence of a year, during which time he had travelled around the world in the interests of the Cause."

1st August, 1911. STAR OF THE WEST. Vol. II No 7. Charles Mason Remey wrote: "The Mashriqu'l-Adhkár represents the sum total of all of the Bahá'í activities. 'Abdu'l-Bahá has repeatedly written to the believers in America that of all works the building of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar is the most important. When it stands accomplished it will be as a haven of rest to those who seek spiritual communion with God within its sacred precincts; while outwardly it will be a banner manifesting and demonstrating to the world what the Bahá'í Faith is."

1911 Mason Remey published his fourth pamphlet, "The Bahá'í Movement: A Teaching of Peace". It consisted of his address before the Third National Peace Congress but was essentially a revision of his 1908 pamphlet.

1912 Mason Remey put out yet another pamphlet. "The Bahá'í Movement for Universal Religion, Brotherhood and Peace". It began with a summary of Bahá'í History but fully half of the text focused on Social Reforms, Laws and Ordinances. It also included a paragraph on Science and Religion.

13th July, 1912. Star of the West, Vol. 3, No. 7. Charles Mason Remey wrote a long article entitled "'Abdu'l-Bahá, The Centre of the Covenant". He tells of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's arrival in New York on the 11th April, 1912 and the warm welcome He received. Mason Remey writes: "He [Bahá'u'lláh] has brought the Kingdom of Peace upon earth, and as the point of guidance for the further establishment of His Kingdom, He appointed His beloved son 'Abdu'l-Bahá to be the Center of His Covenant, the establisher and promoter of His Kingdom and Peace in the world. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's life of service is the Center of the life of the Kingdom which is the Bahá'í Cause. His servitude to God and service to mankind is the heart from which the life force of the Kingdom is flowing to all the members of that growing spiritual body. He is the interpreter and expounder of the Holy Writings. Bahá'u'lláh commanded all to turn to 'Abdu'l-Bahá, who is the Greatest Branch– branched from the Pre-existent Root - the Center of the Covenant of God." (This is only a short extract from the article).

Star of the West, Vol. IV, No. 3, Jamal (April 28th 1913).


To his honor Mr. Charles Mason Remey, Washington D.C.

Upon him be Bahá'u'lláh El-Abha!

He is God!

O thou illumined youth and my spiritual beloved;

Thy letter was received and its perusal imparted happiness impossible to describe. It was an indication of the loftiness of thy nature, the strength of thy effort and the purity of thy intentions. "'Abdu'l-Bahá's happiness is caused by such matters. If the material luxuries of the whole earth were available to 'Abdu'l-Bahá, He would not think for one moment that there is such a thing as comfort and luxury in the world. But when a soul-perfuming fragrance wafts from the rose-garden of the hearts of the friends to the nostrils of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, such joy is realized that involuntarily I render thanksgiving unto the Blessed Perfection Who has trained such servants.

In brief, your letter imparted to me the utmost happiness. This thought of yours is very appropriate.* I hope that a new quickening may be produced in the hearts of the believers, and great firmness and steadfastness become manifest, that this may lead to the guidance of others.

Therefore, with a divine power, a heavenly reflection resolution and purpose, an eloquent tongue and a heart overflowing with the Love of God, take in thy hands the Tablets and travel throughout the cities, even as far as Honolulu, in Hawaii. Travel thou in all the American cities, Call every one to FIRMNESS IN THE COVENANT! Exhilarate every one with the Spiritual Wine of the Covenant! And guide everyone to the diffusion of the Fragrances of GOD! Raise the cry of "Ya-Baha-El-Abha!" and call the name of "Ya-Ali-El-Allah"! (O Thou High One Who is the Most High!).

Awaken the friends, for ere long a test shall come. Perchance some, persons outwardly firm and inwardly wavering shall come to those parts in order to weaken the faith of the friends in the Covenant of God. Let them be awake! Let them be mindful! As soon as they see a trace of violation of the Covenant, they must hold aloof from the violator, Day and night let them strive so that the Lights of the Kingdom of ABHA may encircle the globe and the darkness of error may entirely be dispelled...

Upon thee be Baha El-Abha!

(Signed) 'Abdu'l-Bahá Abbas.

* Referring to a letter telling of the spiritual awakening among the people caused by 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visit in America.


Star of the West, Vol. IV, No.10, Eizzat (September 8th 1913).





During my travels of the past few months I have found that while the problems of each assembly assume their own special character, there is but one vital universal question. This is that of firmness in The Center of the Covenant. ('Abdu'l-Bahá). Until this matter is solved no problems are solved; and when this matter is solved (when we are firm in The Covenant), all of our problems are solved.

When the members of an assembly are each and all firm in The Center of the Covenant, they are then organically united, and the life of The Covenant is manifest in their midst - Thus the will and the desire of God may be accomplished. In no other way can it be done. We all must be firm in The Center of the Covenant, in the love of 'Abdu'l-Bahá!


"The root of all knowledge is the knowledge of God,

Glory be to Him, and this knowledge is impossible

Save through His Manifestation."

From "Words of Wisdom", Bahá'u'lláh.

Through each of the Divine Revelators of the past, God made the promise to man that during these latter days of the world He would establish His Divine Rule upon earth - that He would fulfill His Covenant, and establish His Kingdom triumphant among men.

In the coming of The Bab who was the First Point, Bahá'u'lláh who was "The Pre-existent Root", and 'Abdu'l-Bahá "The Most Great Branch", "Branched from the Pre-existent Root" - in this triple coming is realized the fulfillment of all of the Divine Promises of the past and the establishment of the Covenant of God.

As the life in the branch of the tree is the same as that in the root, so the Divine Spirit manifest in 'Abdu'l-Bahá - The Branch - is the same as that manifest in Bahá'u'lláh - The Root - 'Abdu'l-Bahá has sacrificed all in The Path of Bahá'u'lláh, and now the Power of Bahá'u'lláh is manifesting to the world through 'Abdu'l-Bahá. He is the Center of the Covenant therefore all must turn wholly and without reserve unto him, for 'Abdu'l-Bahá is The Chosen One, the unique channel through which the Power of God is being conveyed to each individual Bahá'í, as a member of Cod's Kingdom upon earth. (Extracts from a letter to an American Assembly By Charles Mason Remey.) 1913.


It is important to realize that the above extracts were written by Charles Mason Remey in 1913, some eight years before the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, and the revealing of the "Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá" which established the station of "guardian of the Cause of God." 'Abdu'l-Bahá named Shoghi Effendi as "the chosen branch, the guardian of the Cause of God". (See page 11 "Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá). On page 12 He also wrote ". . .then must he [the guardian of the Cause of God] choose another branch to succeed him. From this can be seen the spiritual significance of "The Tree of Holiness". R.H.B.

8th September, 1913. Star of the West Vol. IV, No.10. Extract from a letter written by Charles Mason Remey: "There are those individuals referred to as the nakazeen who, after embracing God's Truth and associating themselves with His Cause, have denied The Center of The Covenant ('Abdu'l-Bahá) and dropped away from the Power of The Cause. They are as dead - as spiritual corpses - and from them goes forth to the believers a poisonous infection from which the believers must be protected lest they also become infected and in like manner fall ill and die to the realities of God's Kingdom." Following is portion of a Tablet revealed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, translated by Mirza Ahmad Sohrab, 4th July, 1913: "Convey the wonderful Abha greetings to the believers. Chicago, in comparison with the cities of America, was in advance and numerically contained more Bahá'is, but when the stench (vile odour) of the nakazeen was spread in that city, there was a stagnation. The Cause in other cities of America is progressing day unto day, but Chicago is stationary. Therefore, strive that the sweet fragrance of the Testament and Covenant may become diffused, the nostrils of the spiritual ones become perfumed, the banner of "Ya-Bahá'u'l-Abhá" be unfurled and the tent of the Oneness of the world of humanity be pitched. Then ye shall observe that Chicago has become the Paradise of Abhá. These few nakazeen cannot accomplish anything worth while. The utmost is this, that they will be the means of the dropping of the believers of God in that city. A person deprived of the spirit of the Covenant is sentenced as dead. The dead surely disintegrate. Therefore, breathe the spirit of the Covenant and the Testament as much as ye can in the hearts, so that the souls may progress day unto day and obtain a new exhilaration. Upon thee be Bahá-el-Abhá! (Signed) 'Abdu'l-Bahá Abbás.)

In another Tablet 'Abdu'l-Bahá wrote: "Firmness in The Covenant means OBEDIENCE so that no one may say, 'this is my opinion', nay rather he must obey that which proceeds from the Pen and Tongue of The Covenant."

31st December, 1913. Star of the West. Vol. 4. No.16. pages 267 - 271. Article by Mason Remey titled "Let the New Follow the New". About the Covenant.

8 - 10th June, 1914 During 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visit to Philadelphia. Mr. Remey [brother of Mason] came in about this time, and when 'Abdu'l-Bahá saw him, he greeted him most warmly. "Your brother[Mason] mentioned your name to me. You are greatly blessed by having such a brother. At the present moment you do not know how greatly but you will see this with your own eyes. Your whole family will be glorified; they will be proud that they have such sons as Mr. Remey and yourself".

18th October, 1914. On this day we (George Lattimer and Mason Remey) were called into His ('Abdu'l-Bahá’s) presence. He said: "There are many heralds in the world. [He goes on to enumerate several types]. . . But praise be to God, that you are heralds of the Kingdom of God . . . the fame of the souls, who are the heralds of the Kingdom, is eternal . . . "Thank ye God that ye are the heralds of the Kingdom of Abha, the heralds of the Covenant of the Almighty. . . Today, whosoever is a herald of the Covenant is the light of the Regions. In the Supreme Concourse the Heavenly Cohorts are arrayed, watching to see who will enter the arena of service of the Covenant that they may rush forward to reinforce, to strengthen and to confer upon him triumph."

2nd March, 1915. Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Mason Remey. "O Thou who art rejoiced by the Divine Glad Tidings!" ". . . Verily, I beseech God to make thee confirmed under all circumstances. Do not become despondent, neither be thou sad. Ere long, Thy Lord shall make thee a sign of Guidance among mankind."

April 1916. Extracts from a tablet to Mason Remey from 'Abdu'l-Bahá published in STAR OF THE WEST. Vol. 7 page 94:

To his honor Mr. Charles Mason Remey, Washington D.C. Upon him be greeting and praise! O thou herald of reality! Thou hast written that thou art spending the winter with thy parents, but thou dost not know thy duty for the Spring and Summer. The best way is this, in company with Mr. George Latimer travel thou throughout America and the Hawaiian Islands and summon thou the people to the Kingdom of God. . . . Synthesize and compose ye in simple and effective manner the heavenly principles and present them to the listeners in meetings and gatherings. Through the ideal glad-tidings and the lordly suggestions breathe ye a new spirit into the hearts of the friends of God and encourage and incite them in the promotion of the word of God . . . Upon thee be greetings and praise!

In 1917 Charles Mason Remey published a pamphlet entitled "Some Vital Bahá'í Principles". It contained no history, and no information on the central figures of the Faith, only principles. (12)

23rd March, 1919. Excerpts from a Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Mason Remey.

To his honour, Mr. Charles Mason Remey, Washington D.C. Upon him be BAHA'O'LLAH EL-ABHA!

O thou who art firm in the Covenant!

Since the extinction of the fire of war (1914-1918) four successive letters have been received from you. The utmost happiness they brought for they carried with them the glad-tidings of the health and welfare of the friends of God.

Praise be unto God, that throughout this violent storm the Ark of the Covenant hath attained unto the shore of Salvation. The danger was imminent and the occasion for fear and apprehension prepared....................................... 'Abdu'l-Bahá.

28th April, 1919. Charles Mason Remey, President of the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity, opened the meeting with prayer. He then said, "After having gathered here during the last few days at this Congress, I think we all feel the coming confirmation in these gatherings as we come together in our so called business session. As we put into practice these commands from 'Abdu'l-Bahá, we will then receive the greatest victory and confirmation, because we know that there are different kinds of confirmation - when we take a mental stand, or when we turn our hearts to 'Abdu'l-Bahá, there is a certain confirmation which comes, and when we begin to obey and to speak the holy Words, there comes a still greater confirmation................"

23rd May, 1919. Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Corinne True. "We have cabled Mr. Remey to postpone his tour for his presence, in these days, in America is necessary. In reality he has been and is engaged in the utmost power in service and I love him infinitely and verily he merits this love of 'Abdu'l-Bahá".



To his honor Mr. Remey, care of his honor Mr. Roy Wilhelm, New York City. Upon him be Bahá'u'lláh El-Abha!

He Is God!

O my dear son!

Numerous letters have been received from you and their contents have all been conducive to happiness. Praised be to God, thou art confirmed in service to the Kingdom, art promulgating divine teachings, art raising the call of the oneness of mankind, art detaching the souls from ignorant racial prejudices, art summoning them to the investigation of truth, art showing forth unto them the light of guidance and art offering them the chalice of the wine of the love of God. This blessed purpose of thine is the magnet of the confirmations of the Abha Kingdom.

Rest thou assured and engage with Mr. John Bassett in service to the Kingdom of God throughout the same southern states. This is what is required at present. Later on undertake a tour to the north of America and after that thy course of action and that of Mr. John Bassett shall be determined.

Convey, on my behalf, the utmost love and kindness to Miss Margaret Klebbs and say: "The people of the Supreme admire your work that, praise be to God, you are firm in the Covenant and Testament, and are serving the Kingdom of God".

Upon thee be Bahá'u'lláh El-Abha!

(Translated by Shoghi Rabbani, May 23rd, 1919, Haifa Palestine.)

11th October, 1919. Excerpts from a Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's to Mason Remey.

To his honour, Mr. Remey, Washington, D.C. -- Upon him be BAHA'O'LLAH El-Abha! He Is God. O thou son of the kingdom,

Thy letter was received. Its contents were in the utmost sweetness, for it was indicative that with the utmost power thou hast arisen in order to link together the hearts of souls that are in America with those who are in Europe. This is of the utmost importance, for the first divine teaching is that communities must be freed from racial prejudice, political and even patriotic prejudice, that all men are of one race and the whole universe one land..................................... 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Haifa.

16th October, 1919. Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the American Bahá'ís. "We have cabled Mr. Remey to postpone his tour, for his presence, in these days, in America is necessary. In reality, he has been and is engaged in the utmost power in service and I love him infinitely, and verily he merits this love of 'Abdu'l-Bahá."

24th December, 1919. From a Tablet to Mason Remey from 'Abdu'l-Bahá. "Thy letters have been received.............Verily thou art firm in the Covenant, art self-sacrificing, art the son of the Kingdom and dost deserve the confirmations of His Holiness Bahá'u'lláh. Consequently, 'Abdu'l-Bahá is highly pleased with thee and begs for thee from His Holiness Bahá'u'lláh limitless bounties. As a result of this glad-tiding fly on the wings of joy and raise thou the melody: Happy am I, blessed am I!"

13th July, 1919. American Baha'i News. Vol. 11, No. 7, page 112. Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Mr. A.W. Randall: "The model [of the House of Worship to be built in Wilmette, Ill] of Mr. Bourgeois, praise be to God, has become acceptable to the friends, especially that it has proved approvable to his honor, Mr. Remey".

She (Corinne True) said Mason Remey withdrew his design, in favour of Louis Bourgeois, although each received the same number of votes. (From Introduction by Marzieh Gail to "The Diary of Juliet Thompson" p.xiii)

1st August, 1920 published in American Baha'i News. Vol. 11, No. 8. page 122. "Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Charles Mason Remey". "To his honour, Mr. Remey, Washington D.C. - Upon him be Baha'o'llah El Abha!" "He is God" "O thou son of the Kingdom!" ". . . In brief, I am greatly pleased with thy conduct and thy behaviour. Praise be to God, thou art freed from these limitations and imaginations, hast no purpose save the diffusion of the divine fragrances and art ever restless and active. Thou art day and night striving to hoist the resplendent banner and to cause the shining morn to illumine all regions. From the Abhá Kingdom I ever beg confirmations for thee, for without it the smallest things cannot be performed, how much more this important question ["the subject of the colored and the white"].

20th August, 1920. American Baha'i News. Vol. 11, No. 9 page 139. Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Corinne True. . . . "Praise be unto God, that the model of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar made by Mr. Bourgeois was approved by his honour, and selected by the Convention. His honour , Mr. Remey is, verily, of perfect sincerity. He is like unto transparent water, filtered, lucid and without any impurity. He worked earnestly for several years, but he did not have any personal motive. He has not attachment to anything except to the Cause of God. This is the spirit of the firm and this is the characteristic of the sincere".

20th August, 1920 (translated by Azizullah S. Bahadur) Excerpts of a Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's to Charles Mason Remey.

To Mr. Charles Mason Remey - Unto him be the Glory of God, the Most Glorious! He Is God O thou enlightened beloved son! Praise be unto God, that thou didst arrive at Leipzig safe and sound; didst see the brilliant faces of the friends of God, and didst enjoy the spirituality and love of the German friends. .............. 'Abdu'l-Bahá.

4th November 1920. Tablet from "'Abdu'l-Bahá to Charles Mason Remey. "O thou enlightened beloved son!" ..Thou art unquestionably in the utmost joy and rapture now that thou art mingling and associating with those blessed souls. "It is my hope that thy present trip [in Germany] will give rise to great results. . ." "Unto thee be the Glory of God!" American Bahá'i News, Vol. 11, No. 13 pages 229-230.

12th December, 1920. Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Charles Mason Remey. "O thou herald of the Covenant!" "Thy letters have been received and an answer has been written. Verily thou art firm in the Covenant, art self-sacrificing, art the son of the Kingdom and dost deserve the confirmations of His Holiness Bahá'u'lláh." Consequently, 'Abdu'l-Bahá is highly pleased with thee and begs for thee from His Holiness Bahá'u'lláh limitless bounties". .

  1. Charles Mason Remey was made Chairman of the "Star of the West" committee.

21st March, 1921.Excerpts from article by Mason Remey in "Star of the West". Vol.13

"The Bahá'í Revelation - The Religious Need of the Time." In this day the religious formulae of the past - superstitions, creeds, and dogmas - no longer ease the conscience of the world nor bring satisfaction to the mind of the individual adherent of these systems of thought. Humanity is in need of spiritual power and knowledge with which to meet and solve the problems and conditions of this new day and age...................."

28th April, 1921. American Bahá'i News, Vol. 12, No. 3. page 58. Extract from a letter to Charles Mason Remey from 'Abdu'l-Bahá. ". . . His honour Mr. Remey, that luminous person and heavenly man, is occupied in service in Germany and Holland. He does not rest for a moment and does not breathe but to raise the call to the Kingdom of God".

7th October, 1921. Published in Star of the West, pages 219 - 221. 'Abdu'l-Bahá wrote to Mason Remey, who was considered the most outstanding disciple of Bahá'u'lláh in the United States: "But now your journey to the different parts of America itself will be more fruitful. Notwithstanding that whatever thou see fit, that is acceptable" (Source unknown).

7th October 1921. 'Abdu'l-Bahá wrote to Mason Remey. "Some time ago I wrote thee a letter the content of which was that, praise be to God, thou hast become confirmed in drawing a plan for the Pilgrims House in Haifa. It is my hope that this Pilgrim House may be built under your supervision. Also in the future a Mashriqu'l Adhkar will be established on Mount Carmel. Thou wilt be its architect and founder. I give thee this glad tiding." From Star of the West, Vol. 13, No. 8, November, 1922.

28th November, 1921. Ascension of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.

21st March 1922. Star of the West. Vol. 13 No. 1. Pages 9 - 14. Article by Mason Remey, titled "The Bahá'í Revelation - The Religious Need of the Time". In this article Mason Remey writes: "The object of the Bahá'í Revelation is the religious unification of all people. The teaching has come into the world to fulfill all divine teaching of the past. It stands as the goal toward which truth has always worked, through its appearance in the prophets sent unto various peoples of the past ages, and it is the beginning of that age of divine enlightenment and peace, the coming of which has been the theme of all revelations of the past - The Kingdom of God on earth. . . Bahá'u'lláh arranged for the guidance and the welfare of his cause by appointing 'Abdu'l-Bahá "The Center of His Covenant", to whom the people turned for guidance. And 'Abdu'l-Bahá arranged that after him the people should turn to Shoghi Effendi, whom he appointed "The Guardian of the Cause and Head of the House of Justice" - a body of men chosen from the believers because of their spiritual qualifications for wisdom and divine knowledge." (This is only a very short extract).

Continued on pages 36 - 39 Vol.13, No. 2. 9/4/1922. The Bahá'í World.

March 1922. Diary notes from Mason Remey upon his visit to Haifa. ....."One evening during the visit, Shoghi Effendi brought with him to the Pilgrim House the original text of the blessed Testament of The Master. We stood about the table as he reverently laid the package thereon, carefully unfolding the envelope from a silk handkerchief in which it was wrapped. As he took the three Tablets from the cover we saw that each was in the handwriting of the Master - written as Shoghi Effendi called our attention to witness - without hesitation or correction and signed by the Master in several places. We stood with bated breath in the presence of this document of documents in which is contained the wondrous plan for the spiritual organization of the Cause of God and our guidance for a thousand or thousands of years." Charles Mason Remey.

9th April, 1922. Star of the West. Vol.13 No.2. A continuation of an article by Charles Mason Remey on THE BAHÁ'Í REVELATION - THE RELIGIOUS NEED OF THE TIME. An excellent article running into many pages.

8th November, 1922. STAR OF THE WEST. "Regarding the Bahá'í Temple to be built on Mount Carmel 'Abdu'l-Bahá wrote to Mr. Charles Mason Remey of Washington D.C., in a tablet dated 7th October, 1921: ‘Some time ago I wrote thee a letter the contents of which was that, praise be to God, thou hast become confirmed in drawing a plan for the pilgrim house in Haifa. It is my hope that this pilgrim house may be built under your supervision. Also in the future a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár will be established on Mount Carmel. Thou will be its Architect and Founder. I give thee this glad tidings.’"

3rd June, 1923 from Star of the West, Vol.14. No. 3. Re: the Fifteenth Annual Convention. N.S.A. members elected: William H. Randall, Alfred E. Lunt, Horace Holley, Roy C. Wilhelm, Louis Gregory, Mrs. Corinne True, Mrs. Ella G. Cooper, Mrs. Agnes Parsons, Charles Mason Remey.

9th December, 1923. Star of the West. Vol.14. No. 9. Excerpt from a letter from the Wife of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, in which she was requesting a school to be built: 'Abdu'l-Bahá said "There is a piece of land opposite the Holy Shrine. 'Abbas Gholi, the owner, at the Feast of Ridvan offered it as a gift, and it was accepted. We must purchase all the adjoining land. That is a good location for a school. It has beautiful scenery and pure air, and is near the Holy Shrines. ....................And the revered Mr. Remey drew the plan for the school and presented it for the approval of 'Abdu'l-Bahá."

May 1926. From Star of the West, Vol.17, No.2. Charles Mason Remey wrote a long article about the MASHRIQU'L-ADHKÁR OF 'ISHQABAD, RUSSIA. In the introduction the Editor wrote: The following article describing the first Bahá'í religious edifice that has been constructed is written by an Architect who has traveled much among the Bahá'ís of Persia and the Orient. He has himself given much attention to religious architecture, and has made a series of designs for Bahá'í Temples based on religious architecture of Persia, India and Arabia. [Mason Remey also stated]: "'Abdu'l-Bahá himself established the style and the general lines upon which the Temple was built - namely, that it should be built upon the plan of a regular nine-sided polygon surrounded by loggias and in the midst of a garden at the intersection of nine avenues, with its principle entrance facing the direction of the Holy Land - the composition of the building being similar to that of some of the great temples of Persia and India".

February 1927. From Star of the West, Vol.17, No.11. Charles Mason Remey wrote an article entitled "THE COMMON WEAL". (Dictionary: Well being, prosperity, or happiness):

"Only by the agency of true religion is it possible for men to close their eyes to their own personal advantages and to sacrifice their own personal benefit for the general well-being" 'Abdu'l-Baha.

By Charles Mason Remey: The principles and doctrines of the Baha'i Teachings are intended to meet the needs of this day and age, directing the energy of mankind constructively toward the advancement and general weal (well being) of the entire world of humanity. . . ."

One statement that he made was "It is very easy to slide through life either accepting or rejecting beliefs regardless of the truth and the error they may contain. But Bahá'u'lláh urges His followers to search out truth for themselves, accepting nothing upon hearsay but proving the value to humanity of religious doctrines before they are accepted."

1927. "Star of the West". Vol.18. page 278. "This Western Pilgrim House designed by Mr. Charles Mason Remey was recently renovated, and is now in first class condition, with new furnishings. It is beautiful."

12th and 13th May 1932. Notes made on Pilgrimage by Lorol Schopflocher, Keith Ransom-Kehler with Clara Dunn and Lyle Loveday. " Yes, the GUARDIAN alone can determine whether any piece of legislation (Of the Universal House of Justice) can be undertaken or whether the condition is covered in the holy text. It is promised that the Guardian is protected by God from making mistakes in these decisions. But apart from that I am like anyone else." Lorol is quoted as saying, "There are those who pray to you, Shoghi Effendi" to which he replied in the following vein: "This is absolutely heretical. Such things are not permissible. It is wrong to address me as Lord or Master, or Thee or Thine. I had to send a very abrupt cable to the friends in Bombay to prevent them from celebrating my birthday. If this starts now there will be no end to it. The first Guardian’s birthday, the first Guardian’s death, the tenth Guardian’s accession. They would have 400 Guardian’s celebrations in 365 days. Nor must they refer to me as His Holiness. These things have no place in our Faith, they savour of popishness."

March 1943. American Bahá'í News. Page 2. "Deep as are family ties, we must always remember that the spiritual ties are deeper; they are everlasting and survive death, whereas physical ties, unless supported by spiritual bonds, are confined to this life. . ." Shoghi Effendi.

March 1945. Mason Remey addressed a gathering in the Bahá'í Center at Havana, Cuba.

13th November, 1945. Charles Mason Remey left Miami on a three month trip with stop-overs at Bahá'í Centres in the following countries: Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chili, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Columbia, Panama, Jamaica and Cuba. In a letter from Louise Baker in Caracas, she said: "tomorrow tea will be given in honour of Mr. Remey, and from those who come we hope to start a new study class. The entire group in this time adores Mr. Remey." (American Bahá'i News, Jan. 1946)

March, 1946. It was reported that Mr. Remey's visit in Latin America is nearly completed. It said Mr. Remey is trying to visit all cities in South America where Bahá'ís reside. (Baha'i News, March 1946).

  1. March Bahá'í News. During the last two years Charles Mason Remey, one of our earliest American believers, has visited Bahá'í Communities and groups throughout Latin America and Europe. (Bahá'i News. Jan, 1946)

May 1946. Mr. Mason Remey and Mr. & Mrs. Emeric Sala, have now returned home from their teaching tour in South America. (Bahá'i News. May, 1946)

1947 Mr. Mason Remey is making final preparations to go to Europe as our first itinerant teacher. Mr. Remey plans to visit every one of our "goal" countries during this trip. (American Bahá'i News, June 1947)

About 25th May 1947 Mr. Charles Mason Remey was making his final preparations to go to Europe. Mr. Remey planned to visit every one of our "goal" countries during his trip, and we know that this visit will be of the greatest assistance to the work everywhere. (American Bahá'i News, June, 1947).

29th May, 1947. Mason Remey left by plane to visit pioneers in 10 of the European countries, and enthusiastic accounts were received of his stay in Norway and Sweden.

(American Baha'i News, July, 1947).


1947-1948. During the last two years, Charles Mason Remey, one of our earliest American believers, has visited Bahá'í communities and groups throughout Latin America and Europe. . . He states: "In Dublin I was with the pioneer teachers at the first public meeting held in Ireland at which there was a good attendance and fine response on the part of the people." (American Bahá'i News, March 1948).

1948. (May?) From a letter from Charles Mason Remey: "On landing in England, I made a tour of nine assemblies in that country, Scotland and Wales. During these past four years there has been a strong pioneer movement in the British Isles. " (American Bahá'i News, March, 1948).

June 1948. Mason Remey spent this month in Paris attending the meetings of the Bahá'ís and finishing up the designs of the Bahá'í House of Worship to be built on Mt. Carmel. He said Shoghi Effendi asked me to do this work and the drawings are now completed. These designs were exhibited in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts as a thesis upon which the French Government gave me a Diploma in Architecture. He said: "Recently I've been again in Geneva for a meeting of the friends there and now I am in Germany spending a few days with the friends here in Frankfurt, later to go to Stuttgart, Heidelberg and Esslingen as requested by our N.S.A. . . . After that, Vienna, Austria, then Italy and Switzerland again, then to France and the sessions of the Summer School in England before sailing for home early in September (1948)". (American Bahá'i News, 1948)

July (?) 1948 "Charles Mason Remey, 50 years a Bahá'í, our honoured guest from America, had graciously opened this year's session during the Initial Unity Feast". (Amer Valley, Derbyshire, England). (American Bahá'i News, March 1949)

5/6/7th August, 1949. Mason Remey attended Conference in Brussels, Belgium. The Conference closed with a Unity Banquet at one of the best restaurants of Brussels. The delicious dinner, the gift of Amelia Collins, host in absentia was followed by speeches of greeting from the various countries. Mason Remey talked of his meeting with the Master. (American Bahá'i News, September, 1949).

November 1950. (Rúhíyyih Khánum wrote in "The Priceless Pearl"): "After our return to the Holy Land, when Lotfullah Hakim (the first to arrive), Jesse and Ethel Revell, followed by Amelia Collins and Mason Remey were all gathered at table one day in the Western Pilgrim House, with Gladys Weeden and her husband Ben who were already living there, the Guardian announced to us his intention of constituting, out of that group, an International Council, we were all overcome by the unprecedented nature of this step he was taking and the infinite bounty it conferred upon those present as well as the entire Bahá'i World".

9th January, 1951. Shoghi Effendi made the only Proclamation of his ministry announcing the formation of the International Bahá'í Council, which read as follows: Proclaim (to) National Assemblies (of) East (and) West weighty epoch making decision (of) formation (of) first International Bahá'í Council, forerunner (of) supreme administrative institution destined (to) emerge (in) fulness (of) time within precincts beneath shadow (of) World Spiritual Center (of) Faith already established (in) twin cities (of) 'Akka (and) Haifa. Fulfillment (of) prophecies uttered (by) Founder (of) Faith (and) Center (of) His Covenant culminating (in) establishment (of) Jewish State, signalizing birth after lapse (of) two thousand years (of an) independent nation (in the) Holy Land, (the) swift unfoldment (of) historic undertaking associated (with) construction (of) superstructure (of the) Bab's Sepulcher (on) Mount Carmel, (the) present adequate maturity (of) nine vigorously functioning national administrative institutions throughout Bahá'í World, combine (to) induce me (to) arrive (at) this historic decision marking most significant milestone (in) evolution (of) Administrative Order (of the) Faith (of) Bahá'u'lláh (in) course (of) last thirty years. Nascent Institution now created (is) invested (with) threefold function: first, (to) forge link (with) authorities (of) newly emerged State; second, (to) assist me (to) discharge responsibilities involved (in) erection (of) mighty super-structure (of the) Bab's Holy Shrine; third, (to) conduct negotiations related (to) matters (of) personal status (with) civil authorities. To these will be added further functions (in) course of evolution (of) this first embryonic International Institution, marking its development into officially recognized Bahá'i Court, its transformation into duly elected body, it efflorescence into Universal House (of) Justice, (and) its final fruition through erection (of) manifold auxiliary institutions constituting (the) World Administrative Center destined (to) arise (and) function (and) remain permanently established (in) close neighborhood (of) Twin Holy Shrines. Hail (with) thankful, joyous hearts (at) long last (the) constitution (of) International Council which history will acclaim (as the) greatest event shedding luster (upon) second epoch (of) Formative Age (of) Bahá'í Dispensation potentially unsurpassed (by) any enterprise undertaken since inception (of) Administrative Order (of) Faith (on) morrow (of) 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Ascension, ranking second only (to) glorious immortal events associated (with) Ministries (of) Three Central Figures (of) Faith (in) course (of) First Age (of) most glorious century Bahá'í Cycle. Advise publicize announcement through Public Relations Committee. Shoghi. Haifa, Israel, January 9th, 1951. (The Baha'i World, Vol. XII page 378)

2nd March, 1951. The Guardian, Shoghi Effendi appointed the following members of the International Bahá'í Council and designated the position each would hold.

Rúhíyyih Khánum as liaison between himself and the council

Charles Mason Remey, President.

Mrs. Amelia Collins, Vice President

Ugo Giachery, Member-at-Large,

Leroy Ioas, Secretary-General

Jessie Revell, Treasurer.

Ethel Revell, Western Assistant Secretary.

Lotfullah Hakim, Eastern Assistant Secretary.

(Information taken from "The Bahá'i World", Vol. XII, page 379)

30th March, 1951. Charles Mason Remey, as president of the International Bahá'í Council was received by Rabbi J. L. Hacohen Maimon, Minister for Religious Affairs in Israel. His Excellency, the Minister, welcomed this representative of our beloved Guardian, assuring him of the friendship of the State of Israel toward all the religious communities in Israel, saying that it was the desire of his government that freedom of religion exist in this country and that their attitude toward all religious communities was one of friendship and of respect, and of the extension of their protection to the Holy Places of these various religions, adding "Have we not all one Father? Has not the one God created us all?" The President of the International Bahá'í Council then spoke of Israel as being the Holy Land of the Bahá'ís, as well as that of the Jews, Christians and Moslems. . . ." The President and Vice President of the International Council have likewise paid calls upon both the Mayor of Haifa and the Mayor of Akka, as well as the Military Governor of Galilee. The President also had a very pleasant interview with the United Nations Ambassador to Israel, Mr. Monett B. Davis. This report by Charles Mason Remey, President of the International Bahá'í Council, and published in the American "Bahá'í News" for June 1951 is of extreme importance to all those investigating the Bahá'í Faith.

25th April, 1951. Extract from a Cablegram of Shoghi Effendi:

Preliminary steps taken (in) preparation (of) final design (for the) Mashríqu'l-Adhkár (on) Mount Carmel by President (of the) International Bahá'í Council, specifically appointed (by) 'Abdu'l-Bahá (to be) its architect.

Process (of the) unfoldment (of the) ever advancing Administrative Order accelerated (by the) formation (of the) International Bahá'í Council designed (to) assist (in the) erection (of the) superstructure (of the) Báb's Sepulchre, cement ties uniting (the) budding World Administrative Center with (the) recently established state, (and) pave (the) way (for the) formation (of the) Bahá'í Court, essential prelude (to the) institution (of the) Universal House (of) Justice.

May 1951. Charles Mason Remey issued a report to the National Spiritual Assembly. of the Bahá'ís of the United States detailing the progress of the International Bahá'í Council. (Pages 383 to 390 "The Bahá'í World, 1950-1954.")

June 1951. Charles Mason Remey who had only been appointed President of the International Bahá'í Council a few months earlier, visited the Local Spiritual Assembly of Paris, of which Joel Bray Marangella was the President. His wife Irene was also on the L.S.A.

June 1951 American "Bahá'í News" (Bahá’í Year 108). Charles Mason Remey, writing as President of the INTERNATIONAL BAHÁ'Í COUNCIL wrote a long report on the progress of the work on the Shrine of the Bab, and his concern over the continuation of materials for its completion. This is a very comprehensive report on the work already carried out, and the difficulties encountered, through the work to be completed, including estimates of cost for various sections. He stressed the Guardian's concern in reaching the decision to commit the Bahá'í World and its resources so heavily at that time to the sacred enterprise, also the quality of work and materials. He also reported that he, (Mason Remey) and one of the secretaries of the International Bahá'í Council visited Jerusalem, where, in the course of several days, arrangements were made with the Ministry of Trade for receiving import licenses for the various materials to be used on the Shrine of the Bab.

24th December, 1951. Charles Mason Remey appointed by Shoghi Effendi as a Hand of the Cause of God, together with eleven others.

24th December, 1951. Extract from a long Cablegram of Shoghi Effendi's:

". . . Second, creation (of) International Bahá'í Council in precincts Holy Shrine forerunner International House (of) Justice, supreme legislative organ (of) nascent, divinely conceived, world-encircling Bahá'í Administrative Order. . . .

Hour now ripe (to) take long inevitable deferred step, (in) conformity (with) provisions (of) 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Testament (in) conjunction with six above mentioned steps through appointment (of) first contingent of Hands (of the) Cause (of) God, twelve in number, equally allocated Holy Land, Asiatic, American, European continents. Initial step now taken regarding (as) preparatory full development institution provided 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will, paralleled (by) preliminary measure formation International Bahá'í Council destined (to) culminate (in) emergence (of) Universal House (of) Justice. . . "

(From " The Bahá'i World, Vol. XII page375)

In 1952 after being appointed President of the International Bahá'í Council Shoghi Effendi told Mason Remey that he was always to sit at his left hand whenever he went into a meeting or into the shrines to worship.

August 1952 In this edition of the American "Bahá'í News" is a six page letter from the International Bahá'í Council, signed by Charles Mason Remey, President. This is a progress report from the World Center, mainly about the erection of the Shrine of the Bab (Architect Mr. Sutherland Maxwell). The interiors of the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh and the Mansion, as well as the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Akka and the Mansion of Mazra'ih have been greatly beautified during the past year, in preparation for the coming of the pilgrims. "In the grounds of the Mansion of Bahji a single storey building of 5 rooms remained, although since the days of Bahá'u'lláh and the Master, it had been in Bahá'í possession, its title deed was part of the Mansion itself, of which the Covenant Breakers owned one sixth. Last December, the Guardian, in view of the fact that the roofs of three of the rooms had caved in and the walls were crumbling, and the building becoming daily a more complete and dangerous ruin, instructed the Caretaker of the Holy Shrine to demolish it". This set off a whole series of legal actions taken by the Covenant Breakers which lasted for around 6 months. During this time "the three members of the International Bahá'í Council: Mr. Remey, Dr. Giachery, and Mr. Ioas had interviews with high ranking officials of the Foreign Office and the Prime Minister's office, as well as with the Attorney-General". The legal action passed from court to court. "When the three members of the International Bahá'í Council left the Ministry of Religions in Jerusalem, they had in their possession a paper giving them full authority to tear down the ruins at once." This was accomplished within 48 hours! "One week later the Guardian of the Cause who went over to Bahji himself to supervise the work, had created in time for the night of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh a beautiful entrance, into what is now called the Holy Court leading to the Shrine. In front of the mansion, and in the very spot where the ruined house had stood, a wide expanse of garden sprung from the dust. . . ."

(American Bahá'i News, August 1952.)

August 1952. Charles Mason Remey writes: "On more than one occasion, the Guardian has pointed out to the members of the Council that the Charter upon which the Spiritual and Administrative activities of the Faith in Israel rest is the Tablet of Carmel, revealed by Bahá'u'lláh on Mt. Carmel. The "City of God" mentioned in this Tablet, is the Shrine of the Bab, and the "Ark" means the Laws of God, and refers to the Universal House of Justice, the embryo of which, is the present International Bahá'í Council, which through successive stages will develop into the Universal House of Justice to be established and function on this Holy Mountain. Its membership now consists of: Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Liason between the Guardian and the Council, Charles Mason Remey, President, Amelia Collins, Vice President, Ugo Giachery, Member at Large, Leroy Ioas, Secretary-General, Jessie Revell, Treasurer, Ethel Revell, Western Assistant Secretary." (American Bahá'i News, August, 1952). (Further details in "The Bahá'i World", Vol.12 page 388)

The President of the Council: Mr. Charles Mason Remey has now completed his design for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, which will be erected at a future date, somewhere on Mt.Carmel. During the past winter, he has had the opportunity of consulting with the Guardian about the final details, and having received his suggestions and approval, is now ready to order the model of his Temple in Italy, so that it can be exhibited in the Mother Temple of the West in Wilmette during the historic Convention of 1953" " . . the design carried out by [Charles Mason Remey] the architect chosen for this purpose by the Master Himself, has now been safeguarded for posterity, and is ready for execution when the appointed time comes." (American Bahá'i News, August, 1952) (Further details in "The Bahá'i World" Vol.12 page388)

30th November, 1952 Third Guardian’s Haifa Notes. Seated around the dinner table with Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum were Mason Remey and other members of the International Bahá'í Council. Shoghi Effendi, asked Mason Remey if he was ready to become the [Chief] Judge of "The Bahá'í Court" when it was formed (i.e. the second stage in the development of the International Council). Joel Bray Marangella, President of the National Spiritual Assembly of France, and his wife Irene, were on Pilgrimage at this time.


Item 9. Establishment of a Bahá'í Court in the Holy Land, is a preliminary to the emergence of the Universal House of Justice. (The Bahá'í World. 1950 - 1954. Page 256). Note the reference made by Shoghi Effendi to this court in the Haifa notes quoted above. Furthermore, it should be understood that The Ten Year Plan conceived by Shoghi Effendi and culminating at Ridvan 1963 did not provide for the establishment of the Universal House of Justice

3rd May, to 6th May, 1953.. The All America Inter Continental Teaching Conference, held in Chicago and Wilmette, Illinois. The Guardians message was given by Rúhíyyih Khánum. She said: "The International Bahá'í Council, comprising eight members, [a ninth member being appointed May 4, 1955] is charged with assisting in the manifold activities attendant upon the rise of the World Administrative Center of the Faith, which must pave the way for the formation of a Bahá'í International Court and the eventual emergence of the Universal House of Justice, the Supreme Legislative Body of the future Bahá'í Commonwealth, has been established, enlarged, and the functions of its members defined." (Details in "The Bahá'i World" Vol. XII pages143 - 149)

5th May 1953 The model of the first Bahá'í Temple for the Holy Land, designed by Charles Mason Remey, was exhibited at the Second International Bahá'í Teaching Conference in Chicago, Illinois. The report "Unveiling the Model of Temple to be Constructed on Mount Carmel" by Charles Mason Remey, appears on pages 163 to 165 of The Bahá'í World. Vol. XII, 1950-1954.

21 - 26th July, 1953. Charles Mason Remey attended the Third Intercontinental Teaching Conference, in Stockholm, Sweden. (Details in "The Bahá'i World" Vol. XII pages 171 - 178)

October 7th - 15th 1953. Fourth Intercontinental Conference, New Delhi. Charles Mason Remey, Hand of the Cause from Haifa, as the Guardian's representative delivered Shoghi Effendi's formal message. He also unveiled the portrait of the Martyr Prophet, The Bab. (Full report in "The Bahá'i World" Vol. XII, pages 181 - 188)

October 1953. The design for the International Bahá'í Archives has been made by Charles Mason Remey, carrying out suggestions of the Guardian of the Faith. It was first exhibited at the Fourth Intercontinental Conference at New Delhi, India, Oct. 1953. "One of the fundamental provisions of the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh is that there shall be not only the aspect of worship and glorification of God but also the channel through which that spirit thus engendered can flow out to the world through Bahá'í activities. The Administrative Centre provides that channel". Shoghi Effendi. A photo of the model of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar for construction on Mount Carmel is included in the October 1953 issue of the "Bahá'í News". (Full address by Charles Mason Remey is published in "The Bahá'i World" pages 547 - 550, Vol. XII)

11th October 1953 In a Cable the Guardian recommended that the Hands of the Cause including Charles Mason Remey leaving the Intercontinental Conference in New Delhi travel through "designated lands", "for the purpose of establishing close contact with the National Assemblies, advising and assisting Local Assemblies, etc. . . A partial itinerary of Charles Mason Remey’s trip included: Delhi, Calcutta, Rangoon, Dacca, Chittagong, Bagdogra, Darjeeling, Madras, Columbo, Kandy, Trichinopoly, Madura, Bangalore, Mysore, Hyderabad, Ajanta, Ellora, Aurangabad, Manmad, Poona, Panchganu, Bombay and Karachi. At Chittagong he presented the history of the Bahá'í Faith to a group of the town's leading citizens, gathered in the Chittagong Rest House. (American Bahá'i News, April, 1954)

November 1953. Charles Mason Remey as representative for the Guardian Shoghi Effendi, presented the Guardian's message to the New Delhi Intercontinental Conference. (American Bahá'i News, Nov. 1953)

January 1954. (On the behalf of the Guardian, Shoghi Effendi) The President of the International Bahá'í Council (Charles Mason Remey) and Secretary General (Leroy Ioas), asked permission to call on the President of the State of Israel to greet him officially.

1954 Haifa Notes of Ruth Moffett while on pilgrimage. Shoghi Effendi stated: "His first point was that the preliminary steps be taken for the construction and beautification of the Sepulcher of Bahá'u'lláh in Bahji; following that will be the purchase of land for the building of the Temple on Mt. Carmel. This has already been accomplished, and a pointed monument on a pedestal will be placed upon that site until it is time to erect the Temple. The names of Mason Remey architect, and Millie Collins, donor, will be engraved upon it. The next point was the importance of establishing an International Bahá'í World Court." [the second stage in the evolution of the International Bahá’i Council]

26th April, 1954. As a result of an invitation issued in January 1954 by the International Bahá’i Council, His Excellency the President of the State of Israel, Mr. Izhak Ben-Zvi, and Mrs. Ben-Zvi officially visited the Shrine of the Bab on Mount Carmel, and called on the Guardian. The President (Charles Mason Remey) and the Secretary General (Leroy Ioas) of the International Bahá'í Council were received by them. This is the first time in Bahá'í history that the Head of an independent State has visited either the Head of the Faith or a Bahá'í Sacred property. From American Bahá'i News, June 1955.

March 1955. From the Naw-Ruz message of the Guardian: "I joyfully announce the commencement of the excavations for the foundations of the International Archives heralding the rise of the first edifice destined to inaugurate the establishment of the seat of the World Bahá'í Administrative order in the Holy Land. I announce moreover the selection of the design submitted by the Hand of the Cause, Mason Remey, for the projected Mother Temple in Bahá'u'lláh's native land. . ." Added by the National Spiritual Assembly of America: "Regarding the House of Worship to be constructed in Persia, we recall the request from Haifa published in ‘Bahá'í News’ last summer for suggestions and plans. Now the Guardian announces that the design prepared by Mason Remey, Hand of the Cause in the Holy Land has been chosen. It will be a momentous event when a Bahá'í Temple is constructed and put into use in the land where the Faith was born and most bitterly resisted.

May 4, 1955. Cable received from the Guardian. "Announce to National Assemblies the number of the members of the International Council has been raised to nine through appointment of Sylvia Ioas". (In a cable, dated 9th January 1951, The Guardian proclaimed the establishment of the International Bahá'í Council).

May 1955. From a report in American Baha'i News from Charles Mason Remey, President of the International Bahá'í Council: . . . "This [Archives Building] is the first of the buildings that will give shelter to the administrative activities of the Faith at the World Centre. A seat for the Guardianship, for the Hands of the Cause, and for the Universal House of Justice, as well as other edifices, will later be added. . . the site for the first Temple in the Holy Land has been purchased . . . A commemorative obelisk seven meters in height, and made of Italian Travertine, the same stone the ancient Romans built their temples of, will be placed on the grounds as soon as the land is transferred to our name." (On this obelisk the names of Amelia Collins will be honoured as the purchaser of the land, and Mason Remey as the Architect of the Temple). Re: Visitors and Pilgrims to the Shrine of the Bab: "We estimate at least sixty countries— many important pioneer goals—have been connected directly, through pilgrimages made here, with the dynamic flow of energy which our beloved Guardian releases and which is the very life-blood of our glorious Ten Year Plan."

October, 1957 message from Shoghi Effendi designated Hands of the Cause as "Chief Stewards of Bahá'u'lláh's embryonic World Commonwealth," an appellation which they later used to confer upon themselves a role of collective Guardianship, following the passing of Shoghi Effendi.

4TH November, 1957. Shoghi Effendi, Beloved of all Hearts, Sacred Trust Given Believers By Master, Passed Away (From) Sudden Heart Attack In Sleep" Rúhíyyih Khánum. (American Bahá'i News, December 1957).

9th November, 1957. Shoghi Effendi was buried in London. In the first car of approximately 60 cars forming the cortege Rúhíyyih Khánum was accompanied by Amelia Collins and Charles Mason-Remey.

19th November, 1957. First Conclave of Hands in Haifa. Twenty-six of the 27 Hands of the Faith, including Charles Mason Remey, assembled in conclave at the Mansion of Bahji. Upon Rúhíyyih Khánum's , the widow of Shoghi Effendi's insistence, no minutes or written records were kept of the proceedings of the conclave. To me (Mason Remey) this seemed to be unwise; I felt that a record should be kept of this most important meeting. From "Daily Observations" of Charles Mason Remey. [Writers comments: In the American Bahá'i News of February 1950, page 4 it says: "It is very important that the Baha'is accurately record their experiences with the Master and events in the Cause's progress for these things form data for future histories of the Cause." These conclaves were surely a very important part of Baha'i history).

19th November, 1957 At the first Conclave, nine Hands of the Cause were selected, including Charles Mason Remey, to break the seals on Shoghi Effendi’s desk and safe, and they reported that there was no Will and Testament. From "Daily Observations of Mason Remey.

[Writers comments: It would have been contrary to the provisions of the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá for Shoghi Effendi to have named a successor in a "Will", as the Will & Testament of 'Abdu'l-Baha calls for the appointment by the guardian of a successor "in his own life-time". In view of this the Hands of the Cause could have spent their time well, in researching Shoghi Effendi's past actions and writings to determine whom he HAD appointed "in his own life-time" to be his successor.]

19th November, 1957. Mason Remey wrote in his "Daily Observations": That evening the American and European Hands of the Cause went back to Haifa and spent the night there. The ten Persian Hands of the Cause remained in Bahji.

20th November, 1957. Conclave of the Hands at the Mansion of Bahji. Mason Remey reported that after morning prayers and mention of the Guardianship to the effect that no will or testament had been found in the safe or in the desk of Shoghi Effendi, Dr Muhajir, the youngest of the Persian Hands, sprang to his feet proposing that the Will and Testament of the Master 'Abdu'l-Bahá be pronounced BADAH (a term found in Islam meaning that God changed His mind) and that the Guardianship be ended for ever and closed for ever! . . . He gave a few more reasons, and then each of the Persian Hands stood up and repeated the same formula that he had, which showed very evidently that they had gone into session between those two days and made a covenant between themselves that they would stand against the continuation of the administration of the Cause. This was immediately seconded and carried enthusiastically and supported by all the Persian Hands. . . . Rúhíyyih Khánum concurred with this majority, so their point was carried by the majority. . . The Hands of the Cause of God then selected a body of nine Hands to be known as "CUSTODIANS OF THE BAHÁ'Í WORLD FAITH" to serve at the Bahá'í World Center. (The nine selected included four Hands who were members of the International Bahá'í Council, including Mason Remey, and five others)! From Daily Observations of Mason Remey.

20th November, 1957. Mason Remey recorded about that time in his "Daily Observations": Now, I was extremely asleep in those days. I was terribly upset, we all were, and I didn't see that which was evident. Ugo Giachery was the one who told me, "Did you see they have gone together in the night, and probably sat up all night talking, and they have made a covenant between themselves. Didn't you see that?" Well, when Ugo told me about it, I saw it, but I was very much asleep to those things. I woke up gradually. And now Rúhíyyih Khánum caught that from them. She was not the authoress of the violation. She caught it from them, because when they were lowering Shoghi Effendi's coffin into the grave I read on the coffin plate "Shoghi Effendi Rabbani, first Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith". Now Rúhíyyih Khánum gave the undertaker that inscription to have that engraved in bronze on his coffin. She was undecided. She did not know what was going to happen. But she took hold of that idea of the Persian Friends, and almost all the others did. So that was the beginning.

25th November 1957 A Proclamation was issued from Haifa identifying the nine Hands of the Cause of God selected to serve as "Custodians of the Bahá'í Faith".

In the book "The Ministry of the Custodians 1957 — 1963" it says: "The first effect of the realization that no successor to Shoghi Effendi could have been appointed by him was to plunge the Hands of the Cause into the very abyss of despair." They stated that "in his mysterious insight into the present and future needs of the Bahá'í community, he called into being the International Bahá'í Council [with Charles Mason Remey its President] and the company of twenty-seven Hands with their Auxiliary Boards, whom in his final communication to the Bahá'ís, he designated "Chief Stewards" of the Embryonic World Commonwealth of Bahá'u'lláh." [Hands of the Cause have no administrative rights]. In a Proclamation issued by the Hands on November 25th, 1957 they stated: "We nominate and appoint from our own number to act on our behalf as the Custodians of the Bahá'í World Faith [Nine Hands of the Cause of God]. . .to exercise—subject to such directions and decisions as may be given from time to time by us as the Chief Stewards of the Bahá'í World Faith—all such functions, rights and powers in succession to the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith, [Only the Guardian can name his successor!!??] His Eminence the late Shoghi Effendi Rabbani, as are necessary to serve the interests of the Bahá'í World Faith, and this until such time as the Universal House of Justice, upon being duly established and elected in conformity with the Sacred Writings of Bahá'u'lláh and the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, may otherwise determine."

Writer's comment: The appointment of this body of custodians was clearly not "in conformity" with the provisions of the Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá which prescribes that the Guardian preside as its "sacred head" for life. Later in this book titled THE MINISTRY OF THE CUSTODIANS, Rúhíyyih Khánum said: "we [the Hands of the Cause] were faced with problems of inconceivable magnitude. HOW TO ASSUME THE REINS OF AUTHORITY, WITH NO DOCUMENT TO SUPPORT US, other than general theological statements". [They DID NOT have the authority to take over the affairs of the Faith! The only body with such authority at that time was the International Bahá'í Council (the embryonic Universal House of Justice) with its President Charles Mason Remey.]

Writer's comment: It would appear that the title "Chief Stewards" was intended to mean the chief servants of the Cause (Hands of the Cause of God) assisting the Guardian, especially as The Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá says: "The obligations of the Hands of the Cause of God are to diffuse the Divine Fragrances, to edify the souls of men, to promote learning, to improve the character of all men and to be, at all times and under all conditions, sanctified and detached from earthly things." [Writers comments].

January 1958 at the Kampala Conference, Rúhíyyih Khánum announced that the Guardianship was BADAH (meaning that God has changed His mind!) and ended. Later in a meeting with the Hands she explained herself by saying that she spoke on the spur of the moment and without thought and should not have announced this!!!!

From Daily Observations of Mason Remey.

January 1958. Bahá'í News. This issue included the Proclamation issued by the Hands of the Cause at the conclusion of their first Conclave held in Bahji in November 1957. An article by the NSA in the same issue identified the names of the body of Nine Custodian Hands selected to serve at the World Centre as: Rúhíyyih Khánum, Charles Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Leroy Ioas, Hasan Balyuzi, Ali-akbar Furitan, Jalal Khazeh, Paul Haney, Adelbert Muhlschlegel. [No mention was made of further Guardians]

March/April 1958 Mason Remey writes: "Many Bahá'ís in America and even abroad know of the Manifesto circulated from Chicago (known as the "Chicago Manifesto") in the early days of this period of "Bahá'í Interregnum". It was issued and signed by the three Hands of the Faith then in America, Mrs. Corinne True, Horace Holley and Paul Haney in league with the members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the U.S.A. In this document it was stated that the Guardianship of the Faith was definitely ended forever with the passing of Shoghi Effendi and that after him there would never be another Guardian of the Faith! In other words, from the first Bahji Conclave on (18th - 25th November, 1957) , the majority of the Hands of the Cause wanted the Guardianship ended but they had not considered it wise to tell this to the Bahá'í world, at least, not yet awhile! However some of the American Bahá'ís were questioning why nothing was said in the Proclamation about the Guardianship — their suspicions were aroused! They were concerned why there was no mention of the all-important Guardianship around which revolved the meanings of the Will and Testament of the Master 'Abdu'l-Bahá, and why all of this pussy-footing? They wanted to know and this Manifesto formulated in Chicago told them the exact truth of the sentiment of that first Conclave: namely that is the ruling majority wanted no more Guardianship. The "Custodian Hands" in Haifa, acting with great urgency insisted that the Chicago Manifesto be withdrawn from circulation, not because they, that is the majority of these members disagreed with what it contained, for I remember in that meeting of the Custodians the majority agreed with the substance of the thought of the manifesto, but what they didn't like about it was that this all came out in this way as a public announcement. In other words, these Hands considered that the people throughout the world were not then as yet sufficiently conditioned to the doctrine of the Faith without a Guardian, and not ready to be told what was really in the minds of these Hands of the Faith.

Extracts from "A New Bahá'i Era", referred to as the "Chicago Manifesto": "Since a successor could only be chosen and designated by Shoghi Effendi in his own lifetime, the friends must dismiss all hopeful expectation that a will appointing a second Guardian may later be found. The door to the appointment of a second Guardian, as far as can be determined by reference to the Baha'i writings, is closed. Neither the Hands of the Cause nor the Universal House of Justice has been endowed with the authority for such appointment".

"No Bahá'i text declares that the House of Justice cannot be elected without a Guardian." [Writers comment: In the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá it states: "By this body (U.H.J.) all the difficult problems are to be resolved and the guardian of the Cause of God is its sacred head and the distinguished member for life of that body. Should he not attend in person it deliberations, he must appoint one to represent him."]


April 1958. The National Spiritual Assembly of the U.S.A. said: "The door to the appointment of a second Guardian. . . is closed". Also Horace Holley said: "as you know, the Guardian himself, just a little while before he passed on, constituted them (the Hands) the "Chief Stewards", so that they could qualify under the Will and Testament to appoint a body of Nine, as the Will and Testament describes, and be recognised by the Faith". [See Page 12 Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá which requires the Hands to "elect"–not "appoint"– nine Hands to be "occupied in the important services in the work of the guardian of the Cause of God"]. Shoghi Effendi had not brought this body into existence during his ministry as obviously he had not considered that the Faith had reached the stage in its development requiring the election of this body to assist him at the World Center [which would have constituted one-third of the Hands appointed by him] and who were engaged in the important work of assisting the NSA’s throughout the world in accomplishing the goals assigned to them during the Ten Year Global Crusade. He did have four Hands permanently resident in Haifa who assisted him during the last few years of his ministry (i.e. Ruhiyyih Khanum. Mason Remey, Sutherland Maxwell and Leroy Ioas).

  1. Shoghi Effendi had planned for five Intercontinental Conferences in this year. The American Hands stated at the National Convention in the United States: "the "Chief Stewards" (The Hands of the Cause of God) supply the instrument through which the Bahá'í World Community is guided and encouraged to complete the projects defined by the Guardian".

9th November 1958. Dr. Udo Schaefer, of Germany, wrote to Mason Remey expressing deep concern that the Guardianship may be ended, and also that the Hands of the Cause have written to the German believers saying, "to desist from all further speculation on the future development of the institutions of the Faith". He also said :

" I doubt that the Hands who have not been 'freed of all error' by Bahá'u'lláh have the authority to answer such a question definitively in a negative sense.".

9th November 1958. Extract from a letter of Dr. Udo Schaefer to Mason Remey.

" . . . Most of the believers are depressed and entangled in deep resignation since the death of the Guardian. They are not only depressed because they have lost their brilliant Guardian, but because they fear that the vacancy of the Guardianship, which at first seemed temporary appears to be final. This fear of the believers is multiplied by the sad message of the Hands of June 12th, 1958, in which the message of the Hands of November 1957 is interpreted in such a way, that the believers should give up all hope for a future Guardian. . . I have worked and meditated a lot about the question of our Administration Order, for I wrote my Dr's thesis on this subject. I took the liberty to make a compilation of all the important reasons proving that there must be another Guardian, which you will find enclosed. You may rest assured that it was my sense of responsibility and my conscience which lead me to take action for the preservation of the Faith."

18th November 1958. The L.S.A. of Lucknow, India wrote saying: "Whereas by a resolution passed in the presence of seven members of the Assembly on November 9th 1957, it was resolved that "the activities of this Local Spiritual Assembly be suspended till the appointment of the next Guardian of the Faith, and the same was intimated to the National Spiritual Assembly, of New Delhi. . . .The State of Guardianship is the uppermost thing upon Earth, for the Guardians are not only God's lieutenants upon earth, and sit upon God's throne, but even by God Himself they are called Gods."

19th November 1958, Eugene Schmidt of Germany wrote to the revered Hands "I feel that the propagation as well as the protection of the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh are depended upon the clear and divinely inspired conception of the continuity of the Guardianship. . . ."

December, 1958. Excerpts from a long letter written by Mason Remey to the Hands of the Cause of God:

You hope to establish as a source of infallibility to supplant that of the Guardianship, a House of Justice of your own creation. This cannot be done unless there be a Guardian in office to establish it, for you all know that there are to be two pillars of the supreme body. It cannot come into existence without first the Guardianship to create the House of Justice. The Guardian will himself direct this establishment - you cannot establish it. . . .The Cause can have no protection at all without the Guardianship and that means a Guardian here upon earth to lead and to govern us–then we will have a protected Faith protected in the only way possible to protect it– then the propagation of the Faith will be a simple matter.

Sometime in 1959. Excerpt from a letter to the Hands of the Cause by Mason Remey:

When I made my stand in the conclave of the Hands of the Faith (Nov. 1958) against their united support of the violation of The Will and Testament of the Master 'Abdu'l-Bahá, the cry went up from several that my stand would create a division among the believers! . . . The Beloved Guardian (Shoghi Effendi) remarked more than once in his talks to us at table, that Haifa, the Center of the Administration of the Bahá'í Faith, was the most difficult place in all the world for a Bahá'í to live! I had not been there myself very long before I found this to be most true as each of the other American Bahá'ís there in our small community was finding it to be. One day several of us Americans were at lunch together, and one of the number, Leroy Ioas, summed up the situation saying, "Haifa is the hell hole of this world" and we all present endorsed his observation summing up this situation for we all felt that it was Hell to be there in Haifa. . . But now during these past two years and, more without a Guardian in command, life in Haifa has changed greatly indeed. Now things here are quite the reverse of what they were under the First Guardian. Now we are living there like children out from under the restraints of school with its teachers enjoying the freedom of a vacation. . . In the days of the Beloved Guardian, he insisted upon frugality. He kept the expenses of the community down to a minimum– he deplored the ease and comforts of life in America– these he considered to be actually detrimental to the spiritual way of life. . .The luxuries of the American way of life are being indulged in here at the expense of the Bahá'í Fund! I dare not mention these in detail for fear of giving personal offence to friends. . . The very fact that we Bahá'ís living in Haifa now enjoy so much freedom from restraints, both in spending and in living that we will not have, I assure you, under the renewal of the Guardianship when this is re-established, is in itself, if anything, may be a block in your way leading to the re-establishment of the Guardianship. . . In other words, the Hands of the Faith are now well and comfortably established in Haifa, but there is no telling what restrictions another Guardian might make in personnel here and in their way of life?

Mason Remey.

12th February 1959. At the meeting of the Custodian Hands. A letter was put before them from the Local Assembly of Lucknow, India Seven of the members had united to dissolve that local body until such time as the Guardianship be renewed and functioning again. Their letter was dated 18th November, 1958 (quoted above under that date). One of the reasons was that they cannot accept the present condition of the Cause without a Guardian, so the only thing they could do was to dissolve the Assembly. Mason Remey in his "Daily Observations" said that this letter was referred back to the N.S.A. of India.

14th April 1959. This day the Custodian Hands of the Faith met in conference. News very disquieting had come to us that Hermann Grossman in South America had told Bahá'ís that the Hands of the Faith had had a change of mind, and that undoubtedly there would be a second Guardian of the Cause! (From Daily Observations of Mason Remey).

November 1959. Mason Remey realized that he could no longer agree to work with the "Custodians of the Bahá'í Faith" and refused to sign their papers because he said they were a violation of the Master's Will and Testament. He then left Haifa to return to America via Italy. (From Daily Observations of Mason Remey).

In a statement by the SECOND GUARDIAN OF THE BAH'A'I WORLD FAITH, Charles Mason Remey wrote: "My refusal to sign the message of the Hands from the Third Bahji Conclave to the Baha'i world, in November 1959, precipitated matters and eliminated me from the nine Custodians. Therefore, shortly after this, I left Haifa for Washington, where I am now in voluntary exile from my home in Haifa - the home that, publicly and before all of the Baha'i community in the Holy Land, Shoghi Effendi ordained for me on this earth".

4th November, 1959. Extracts from "Conclave Message of 1959" from the Hands of the Cause, published in "The Ministry of the Custodians" pages 167 - 170.

". . . we have fixed the date for the election of the Universal House of Justice as Ridvan, 1963, . . . We have therefore formulated the following plan of action which will enable the Baha'i world to establish the Universal House of Justice in 1963, and which we now share with our fellow believers". . . "We are also happy to announce that another milestone in Baha'i history will be reached with the election of the International Baha'i Council during Ridvan, 1961. The embryonic institution established and so highly extolled by the beloved Guardian will thus enter its final stage preceding the election of the Universal House of Justice. . . . This International Baha'i Council is to work under the direction and supervision of the Hands of the Cause residing in the Holy Land, serve a two year term of office, and cease to exist upon the occasion of the Universal House of Justice". . . . "We wish to assure the believers that every effort will be made to establish a Baha'i Court in the Holy Land prior to the date set for this election". [Writers comment: Charles Mason Remey refused to sign this document on the basis that he would not join them in their violation of the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Baha.]

Re: "Conclave Message of 1959" by the Hands of the Cause to the Bahá'is of East and West dated 4th November, 1959. Charles Mason Remey wrote in his Ridvan Message of B.E.117 (1960): "The Program for 1960 as announced by the Hands of the Faith in their message to the Bahá'i world on November 4th, 1959 signed by twenty two of the Hands, as well as the same program announced in their former messages, so flagrantly violates and puts to naught the Will and Testament, the Guardianship, and the Administration of the Faith that the Beloved Guardian so laboriously and painstakingly built up during his long ministry, that I can no longer condone such actions upon the part of the Hands of the Faith. . . I have remained silent now for over two years hoping that they would give up this destructive propagandizing but all to no effect so now it is necessary that I call a halt upon their activities. I have delayed as long as I dare delay before issuing this command to the Bahá'i World - I hoping that the Hands of the Faith would see for themselves that the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Baha was being violated and that they would of themselves abandon their stand".

25th November 1959 Message to the Baha'i World signed by 22 Hands of the Cause except Mason-Remey.

April 1960, Mason Remey wrote: "I have made every effort possible to awaken the Hands of the Faith to the danger into which they are thrusting the Cause. All with no apparent result: that is, no good result for the Faith. The only result so far has been the deterioration of the Faith and the advance of the violation of the Faith, the Administration of the Faith, and of the Guardianship of the Faith."

". . . they (Hands of the Cause) have become bold and more bold in their attacks upon the basic principle of the Faith that is the Guardianship– they directing their attack by honeyed words and promises that they would establish infallibility in 1963 and then the Faith would have the Infallible Guidance of God and that the Cause will then no longer need a Guardian for the Faith". [ Writers comments: However, in the "Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh", it says: "Though the Guardian of the Faith has been made the permanent head of so august a body (Universal House of Justice) he can never, even temporarily, assume the right of exclusive legislation. He cannot override the decision of the majority of his fellow-members, but is bound to insist upon a reconsideration by them of any enactment he conscientiously believes to conflict with the meaning and to depart from the spirit of Bahá’u’lláh’s revealed utterances." This shows that the Universal House of Justice is not infallible without a Guardian, because it clearly anticipates errors of decisions! Also Hands of the Cause cannot overrule a Guardian.] In the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá it states: "It is incumbent upon the members of the House of Justice. . . to show their obedience, submissiveness and subordination unto the Guardian of the Cause of God" The members of the Universal House of Justice would not need to be submissive and subordinate to the Guardian (Sacred Head of the U.H.J.) if they were infallible on their own!. Extract from Daily Observations of Mason Remey.

Joel Bray Marangella wrote in the Foreword to EXTRACTS FROM THE DAILY OBSERVATIONS OF THE BAHÁ'Í FAITH, BY MASON REMEY: It was not until the end of His two-and-a-half year period in Haifa and actually after his departure from Haifa when he was composing his appeals to the Hands of the Faith, that for the first time, he began to consider the real significance of his appointment as the President of the International Bahá'í Council, a subject that never came up in the conclaves. It was only then that he, himself, realised that by virtue of his appointment he had become the second Guardian of the Faith, coincident with the passing of Shoghi Effendi, and that the office of the Guardian had not been vacant for a single moment. It was then that he penned his Proclamation and released it to the Bahá'í world at Ridvan 1960 [Writers comment: A Proclamation which remains unread by the vast majority of the Bahá'ís of the world today !!].















[THIS PROCLAMATION was to have been presented by Mason Remey at the Annual National Convention of the Bahá'ís of the United States of America during Ridvan 1960, but was refused, and, as it was not presented to the believers at this convention or further distributed by the NSA of the United States to the Baha’i World, most of the Bahá'ís of the world have never had the opportunity to read it for themselves and consequently remain totally unaware, to this day, of the manner in which Mason Remey inherited the Guardianship! Writers comment.]

Ridvan 1960. Proposed PROCLAMATION TO THE N.S.A. OF AMERICA from Mason Remey providing clear evidence that Shoghi Effendi had appointed him his successor. Following are extracts from this "Proclamation to the Bahá'ís of the World," Ridvan 117, Bahá'í Era:

Beloved Friends: Believers have questioned me as to my status as President of the Bahá'í International Council, appointed by The Beloved Guardian Shoghi Effendi, the First Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. I take the means of this proclamation, to the coming annual National Convention to tell all Bahá'ís exactly what my position and status is in the Faith.

The Bahá'í people the world around know that The Beloved Guardian singled me, Mason Remey, out from amongst all of the Believers upon earth to occupy the position of President of the Bahá'í International Council. This is the only position suggestive of authority that Shoghi Effendi ever bestowed upon anyone, the only special and specific appointment of authority to any man ever made by him.

The Beloved Guardian declared the Bahá'í International Council to be the fore-runner of, and the first step toward the establishment of The Universal House of Justice, and furthermore, that the Bahá'í International Council was the embryo of The Universal House of Justice, which embryo would eventually develop into The Universal House of Justice. [Abdu'l-Bahá wrote "the embryo possesses from the first all perfections .. in one word, all the powers - but they are not visible, and become so only by degrees"] The Beloved Guardian gave me no authority to do anything about the Universal Council [i.e. the "International Baha’i Council] during his lifetime for while He was living He was the Guardian of the Faith and as infallibility then was vested in him and in him only, my position was then only that of I, myself, holding a potential responsibility. But with the death of Shoghi Effendi, He no longer being the center upon earth of infallibility, I became the acting President of the International Council in my own right as President of this body, thus I came into active command of the council. Therefore I am now but assuming the powers that came to me automatically upon the death of Shoghi Effendi and that have been mine exclusively of all others upon earth since the death of the First Guardian of the Faith. . . .

The Beloved Guardian chose me to be the President of the Bahá'í International Council that is according to his explanation the President of the Embryonic Universal House of Justice. Therefore I am the President of the Embryonic Universal House of Justice. [Comment: Only the Guardian can be the President, or "Sacred Head" of the Universal House of Justice]. When this August body becomes the Universal House of Justice, if such being during my lifetime, I will then be the President of the First Universal House of Justice of the Baha'i Dispensation.

Therefore, inasmuch as the Beloved Guardian in His infallibility has thus placed me in command of the Faith to protect and to guard the Faith, I can do nothing but assume my place that he has given me with all of the responsibilities, the prerequisites and emoluments that go with this position, therefore by his infallible orders I now alone after him command the cause and guard its integrity. . . .

The Program for 1960 as announced by the Hands of the Faith in their message to the Bahá'í world of November, 4th, 1959 signed by twenty two of the Hands, as well as the same program announced in their former messages, so flagrantly violate and puts to naught the Will and Testament, the Guardianship, and the Administration of the Faith that the Beloved Guardian so laboriously and painstakingly built up during his long ministry, that I can no longer condone such actions upon the part of the Hands of the Faith. I have remained silent now for over 2 years hoping that they would give up this destructive propagandizing but all to no effect so now it is necessary that I call a halt upon their activities. . . . [End of extracts from Mason Remey's Proclamation].

1st June 1960. The National Spiritual Assembly of France, having received a copy of the Proclamation directly from Mason Remey, and as a result of restudy of the Will and Testament of the Master and the writings of Shoghi Effendi, followed by consultation, and in spite of a cable received from the Custodian Hands denouncing Mason Remey, voted to accept Mason Remey as the second Guardian of the Faith.

1960. Extracts from a long statement made by Charles Mason Remey to Hand of the Cause Dr. Udo Schaefer: It was at this conclave [November, 1958] that I found myself thoroughly awakened to the violation of the Hands of the Faith in their NOT WANTING THE GUARDIANSHIP. In this second conclave, the very word "Guardianship" was becoming taboo. It was hinted at when the letters and telegraphic dispatch, bearing hopes for a second Guardian, were directed to the conclave from the friends in Germany; but while a few of us read these pleas from Germany, asking that the hope for a Guardian of the Faith not be abandoned, none of these communications was read before the conclave. Nor were these communications discussed! Between these first and second Bahá'í conclaves, a few people in America had begun to question the Hands attitude of no more Guardianship wanted. . . Thus were these Hands of the Cause in the Holy Land playing a double-faced game; for they, by avoiding the subject were thus conditioning the believers, if it were possible, to forget about the Guardianship. Thus did they intend to reinforce themselves in their own leadership of the Faith and in their plans for creating a House of Justice in 1963– a House they claimed would be infallible without a Guardian. . . In the conferences of the Custodian Hands in Haifa following this second BAHJI Conclave, I told the Hands repeatedly that they were violating the Will and Testament. (From "Daily Observations")

1st June, 1960. Mason Remey wrote to Dr. Udo Schaefer who by then had given his support to the Hands of the Faith in their rejection of the Guardianship and their intention of electing their Universal House of Justice in 1963. He said: "With your clear concept of the infallibility of the Guardianship, how can you endorse and accept any Universal House of Justice that the Hands could establish without their first having a Guardian to give the first support–that of infallibility to the institution? According to the Will and Testament, the Administration is built up about and centered in the Guardianship. Therefore how can you look at this plan of the Hands for 1963 as anything other than a flagrant violation of the Will and Testament and Administration that the Beloved Shoghi Effendi built up upon and about the Guardianship?" etc.

1st June, 1960. Extract from letter by Mason Remey to Dr. Udo Schaefer: "The facts of my appointment by the Beloved Guardian Shoghi Effendi to follow him as the Second Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith were presented by me to the Bahá'í world by my Proclamation to the American National Convention of Ridvan 117 B.E.–not as a claim by me, Mason Remey, for that most exalted position in the Faith, but as a statement to the Bahá'ís in convention and through them to the Bahá'ís of the world that the beloved Guardian, Shoghi Effendi, had himself and of himself bestowed this position of Guardianship of the Faith upon me. Of this appointment I had nothing to do whatsoever. I never put myself forward for such a position in the Faith, neither before nor since this appointment.. . .Then some time later he further elucidated this matter by saying that this International Council with me as its President was in fact the embryonic Universal House of Justice that was destined to develop into the full functioning Universal House of Justice of the Bahá'í Dispensation of the future ages, the heart and the infallibility of which would rest in the Guardian of the Faith who would be the President of the House of Justice as prescribed by the Will and Testament of the Master 'Abdu'l-Bahá. In other words, no one but the Guardian of the Faith could be the President of the Universal House of Justice, and the President of the Universal House of Justice could be no other person than the Guardian of the Faith."

June, 1960. From Introduction to "The Question of the Guardianship" by Charles Mason Remey: "The letters that are reproduced in this folio from Germany, Belgium and India explain themselves. Dr. Udo Schaefer gives a very comprehensive outline of his treatise upon the Administrative Guardianship of the Bahá'í Faith. Mr. Eugen Schmidt expresses with deep feeling the hopes of the believers centered in the Administrative Guardianship of the Faith. Mr. Gupta of Lucknow, India gives the most powerful statement that I have as yet seen from the pen of a believer on the station and the spiritual power of the Guardianship. While Mons. Louis Henuzet extends the hope of the continuation of the Guardianship, on and on, as given to the Cause in the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, and as promised also by The Beloved First Guardian of the Faith. . . .But now (June 1960) the Hands of the Faith have arisen to violate the Guardianship and to put an end to the Administrative Guardianship of the Bahá'í Faith. . . ."

July 1960. The Custodians of the Bahá'í Faith, not including Mason Remey, "sent Hand of the Cause ‘Abu’l Qasim Faizi to France as their representative, with specific instructions to dissolve the National Spiritual Assembly [of France] and call for a new election." (President was Joel Bray Marangella).

5th July, 1960. The Custodians sent a letter to all N.S.A's informing them that the Hands of the Cause had instructed the friends in France to "refrain from associating with the former members of the National Assembly there who were active in their support of Mr. Remey". They then stated that they felt "that the time has come to extend this policy to all individuals who openly support this false claim" and that "the believers everywhere should immediately cease association, either by direct contact or by correspondence, with anyone who supports Mason Remey's claim to be the Guardian of the Faith".


26th July, 1960. The Custodians, in a cable addressed to all National Spiritual Assemblies said: "ENTIRE BODY OF HANDS. . .ANNOUNCE BAHÁ'Í WORLD MASON REMEY COVENANT BREAKER EXPELLED FAITH [Comment: Only a Guardian has the authority to expel a Hand of the Cause] . . . CALL UPON THE FRIENDS EVERYWHERE TO SHUN REMEY AND ANYONE ASSOCIATING WITH HIM OR ACTIVELY SUPPORTING HIS CLAIMS."

September, 1960. American Bahá'í News. Mason Remey and his supporters were declared Covenant Breakers and his followers listed below, resident in France (with one exception), referred to as his Henchmen!

John Carre Bernard Fillon

Monir Darakhsan Joel Marangella

Jaques Soghomonian Donald Harvey

John Byers Mary Wilkin from U.S.A.

Also, it was stated that anyone associating or supporting Mason Remey’s claim would be expelled as Covenant Breakers. [Note: The above names were a very incomplete list of the believers in France, and elsewhere, who accepted. Mason Remey]

July 9, 1960. A letter from the former President of National Spiritual Assembly of France and Auxiliary Board Member appointed by the Hands of the Cause in Europe, (Joel Bray Marangella) presenting the basis for his acceptance of Charles Mason Remey’s accession to the Guardianship was sent to a large number of believers in Europe and the United States.

1960 - 1961. Mason Remey, as Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith, wrote a series of Encyclical Letters to the Bahá'í world.

In the first letter he wrote: In my Proclamation to the Bahá'í World–Ridvan 117 (April 1960), I announced to the Bahá'í world that the Beloved Guardian of the Faith, Shoghi Effendi, had in his own life time appointed me to follow him in the Guardianship of the Faith as the Second Guardian of the Bahá'í Cause, and that I have been the Guardian of the Faith (and had stood alone guarding the Faith) since the death of the First Guardian of the Faith. (4th November, 1957). . . This I explained in my recent Proclamation declaring that I, Mason Remey, made no claims upon mine own behalf but that I was merely telling the Bahá'í world what might have been evident to them had they realized that there had been no break in the Guardianship of the Faith between the First and Second Guardians of the Cause; for inasmuch as my appointment was during the life time of Shoghi Effendi, automatically at his death I was the Second Guardian of the Faith! . . . Therefore, in view of these facts there should be no question as to the legitimacy of my Guardianship since the Beloved Guardian Shoghi Effendi accomplished this appointment all in accordance with the Will and Testament of the Master 'Abdu'l-Bahá.

Ridvan 1961. Hands of the Cause message: "We are also happy to announce that another milestone in Bahá'í history will be reached with the election of the International Bahá'í Council during Ridvan 1961." [Up till 1960, Charles Mason Remey had been the President, appointed by Shoghi Effendi]. And, in doing this, the Hands of the Cause would be bypassing the establishment of the International Bahá'í Court, the second stage in the evolution of the Council as called for in Shoghi Effendi’s Proclamation of 9 January 1951, and a stage which, in his cable of April 25th 1951, he had characterized as an "essential prelude to the institution of the Universal House of Justice."

1961 Mason Remey visited the home of Audie Petzolt in Quincy, Illinois, U.S.A. and Mr. McClymond made a reel to reel recording of a talk he gave. This was subsequently transfered onto cassette tape in April 1993 by Kevin Walsh. Mason Remey tells how he took notes of the Conclaves, etc., held in Haifa, and how because of the violation there, left Haifa in 1959.




It was in 1952, after the Guardian had appointed me the President of the International Bahá'í Council. . . . . I came home on a visit for a few days, and I met Stanwood Cobb. And Stanwood Cobb said to me: "Mason, do you realize that if anything happens to Shoghi Effendi that you would be in his place?" Well I hadn't realized it, but I said "Goodness gracious, Stanwood, don't put that on air." I didn't want Stanwood to go around talking like that because there's no time for that. And I never heard any more about that. But that was Stanwood's first reaction. He saw that, so I sent a word to Stanwood by Frances Fales. I said, "You tell Stanwood, that he's playing a double game, that he recognized this before anyone else had, but he wants to stay in on both sides". I said, "You tell him he has got to make a clean breast of this." And I sent him the eleven volumes of my testimonials of things that went on in Haifa. Now, I said, "Frances, you give these to Stanwood, and you tell him to read these over and study them. And you tell him that if he comes out and makes his stand, his name will go down in history as a staunch Bahá'í, and if he doesn't, well God help him" [Note: Professor Stanwood Cobb was a renowned early author of several books, (the most notable being "Security for a Failing World," an educator and founder of a private progressive elementary school in Chevy Chase, Maryland and a summer camp for children at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine]

1961 Mason Remey stated in his "Daily Observations" that recounts events in Haifa following the passing of Shoghi Effendi, that in the 2 years after Shoghi Effendi died he was constantly telling the Hands they were violating the Covenant, and hoped they would be able to see it. He said how the Persian Hands decided at the first Conclave following the death of the Guardian, that the Guardianship should be ended, and how Rúhíyyih Khánum agreed with this, as did the majority! Also in the following 2 years he never heard one of them express a regret that they didn't have a Guardian! Also, how life was easier after the Guardian's passing as more money was available and they were not so hard worked.

5th December, 1961 Charles Mason Remey (age 87) sent a letter within another sealed envelope to Joel Bray Marangella, then residing in France. The message in the outer envelope read :

"Joel: Please take care of this sealed envelope among your papers in the Bernese Oberland. As I see things now it may have to do with the coming world catastrophe in or after 1963. You will know when to break the seal.

2nd January, 1962. Excerpt from a letter of Mason Remey: Therefore the Guardian of the Faith is the source of the life of the Faith and a moving Cause in the world. The violators claim that Shoghi Effendi is their Guardian and that he, from the next world is directing them now in this world, nor do they wish a Second Guardian of the Faith! This is their violation, they are denying the Infallibility of the Living Guardian of the Cause.

DIRECTIVES FROM THE GUARDIAN [CHARLES MASON REMEY] Written April 24th 1962. The Bahá'i Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, 'Abdu'l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi, First Guardian of the Bahá'i Faith, that were published before the date 1960 A.D. by the Bahá'i Publishing Trust, Wilmette, Illinois, U.S.A. are recommended for study by the Second Guardian, as these works contain the pure, unadulterated Bahá'i Teachings. He warns all people against publications that are now being put forth by this Bahá'i Trust (Wilmette, Illinois), because since April 1960, the people now in control of this Trust have repudiated their Faith of the original Canons of the Bahá'i Faith. [The writer confirms that he has found a number of alterations in Bahá'i Books published since 1960 compared to those published before this date!]

27th September, 1962, Mason Remey embarked by ship from America for Europe, arriving 8th October 1962 in Florence, where he said he was surrounded in Europe by a small but devoted group of faithful supporters of the Guardianship. He said, from various parts of the world, the number of pro-guardian Bahá'ís is slowly but steadily increasing. Several telegrams had reached him from France, Germany, and Latin America containing declarations of acceptance of the Second Guardian of the Faith. He also said; "The great problem facing the Faith today is the need for study of the Holy Teachings such as the Will and Testament of the Master, The Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh by Shoghi Effendi, etc. . . . The group of misled Friends in the Holy Land, in denying the Guardianship, wish to substitute a politically elected body to rule the Abha Kingdom upon Earth! In other words a man-made order is created by them to take the place of a Divinely appointed Guardianship. By this act, they are cutting themselves off from the Revealed Teachings of God;– thus, holding back the spread and growth of the True Faith.

To achieve this DESTRUCTIVE end, those in power at Haifa are forbidding the believers to read and to study the Will and Testament of the Master....and even to mention the Guardianship! To follow such un-Bahá'í leadership is surely to be misled. Referring to a recent publication entitled "CONVINCING ANSWERS" being circulated from Haifa, Mason Remey said: "In this booklet, the 12 principles of the Faith are enumerated and discussed at length; whereas, the name of 'Abdu'l-Bahá is mentioned only once and even then is referred to simply as the "son of Bahá'u'lláh" instead of honoring Him in his true Station as the Center of the Covenant as the True Believers know and continue to honor him as being. No mention is made therein of the Master's Will and Testament nor of Shoghi Effendi, who dedicated his entire life towards the development of the Administration and from whom, it was formerly claimed by the erring Hands in Haifa, their inspiration and guidance would come from the Abha Kingdom. Yet, they do not deem his name (Shoghi Effendi) worthy of mention in a publication circulated to attract new believers to the Faith!

As Guardian of the Bahá'í World Faith, I feel it my Spiritual Obligation to protect the entire body of believers whether they accept the Guardianship or not, for the masses have not abandoned the Faith but have rather been "misled" into their erring stand. Letter from Mason Remey dated October 24th, 1962, Florence, Italy.

31st December, 1962. In a MESSAGE FROM THE GUARDIAN TO THE BELIEVERS, Charles Mason Remey wrote: The future progress of the Bahá'i Faith (under the Guardianship) depends very much on the ability of the Friends to fully understand the significance of the institution of the Guardianship. Those who have separated themselves from the True Fold have done so by their refusal to submit to the Canons of the Faith given to us by Bahá'u'lláh and clarified by the Master, Abdu'l-Baha, in His Will and Testament. The Guardianship was established to provide the necessary guidance for the believers and to protect them from error. This "guidance" can only be given by the living Guardian for he alone upon earth (according to the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Baha) is capable of leading the followers in the path of the Abha' Kingdom. Charles Mason Remey.

January 1963. Mason Remey wrote to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Orthodox Believers: "What matters is one's firm conviction that the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh MUST have a Guardianship. The Faith was never intended without one. All that is necessary is for any sincere believer to read the "Administrative Order" by Shoghi Effendi in order to understand that the Faith "would be mutilated and permanently deprived of that hereditary principle which, as "'Abdu'l-Bahá has written, has been invariably upheld by the Law of God".

February 1963. Mason Remey wrote: "You see, the friends in Haifa never even tried to find a Guardian elect. After Shoghi Effendi's death, no one wanted a Guardian. It was not me, personally, the friends objected to but rather to the Guardianship as an institution itself. It is clear the Faith was never intended to be without a Guardian. Too many fundamentals of the Faith depend on the Guardianship. It is impossible to substitute this divinely inspired institution with a man-made organization."

Again in February 1963 Mason Remey wrote: "The people in Haifa are claiming that the Will of God is "Bada" [Meaning that God has changed His mind] but they do not tell the friends what God's plan in lieu thereof is, and that the plan they are substituting is their own. This is ridiculous, for God then, according to their interpretations, has stepped aside with His plan to allow them (the erring group in Haifa) to supply a plan of their own! The dangerous point in their claim, however, is the fact that Shoghi Effendi is still directing the Cause from the Abha Kingdom and thus they do not need a guardian in the flesh!"

Ridvan 1963. The Hands of the Cause went ahead with the election of their sans-Guardian Universal House of Justice at Ridvan 1963. [THIS WAS NOT A GOAL OF THE TEN YEAR CRUSADE! Comment: 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament says: "the guardian of the Cause of God is its sacred head and the distinguished member for life of that body"].

April 1963. Mason Remey wrote "We must each, one and all, study and become intimately acquainted with and practice the Laws of the Book of Aqdas. Each must accomplish this in his own most secret heart and thought! The spiritual strength resulting from such devotion and dedication to the Teachings of Bahá'u'lláh will be the weapon with which to put down this great violation that is causing the present "split".

Late April 1963. To the National Convention of (the Orthodox) Bahá'ís under the Hereditary Guardianship. April 27 - 28. "It is sad, indeed that our beloved Faith has been plunged into the recent state of confusion where the masses of believers are unable to recognize the Truth about the present day Violation in spite of our many efforts to enlighten them. The present state of affairs has made it clear to us that the vast majority of believers have not been properly taught to know and to understand the Administrative Canons of the Faith.

June 1963. THE GLAD TIDINGS, Vol. IV, No,2 From A MESSAGE TO THE BELIEVERS FROM THE GUARDIAN. (Charles Mason Remey) ". . . This does not mean that we are to abandon those misled friends who continue to follow the violation but rather that we must concentrate our united strength to new spiritual goals. As we grow stronger and establish ourselves more firmly, the other group will, by their inevitable errors weaken. When they turn to us for spiritual assistance, we must be ever ready and willing to meet the situation and make their return into the True Fold of the Bahá'i Faith as joyous for them as it will be for us. This can best be accomplished through love and understanding. . ."

4th July, 1963. From a letter by Mason Remey. PROPHECY of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Our problem of these days were seen by the Master, 'Abdu'l-Bahá when he told us that the Tree of the Cause would be so shaken that but very very few would remain firm– but that then shortly after that time of testing the people would come in strong and in great numbers.

September 1963. Mason Remey wrote: "I know that I myself am living as true a Bahá'í life as I know how and enjoying excellent relationships with the people who fill my life and as a result I can sincerely state that I have never before been happier than I am at this time". Mason Remey, Florence, Italy.

September 1963. From Mason Remey:

TO ALL BAHÁ'Í FRIENDS. Shoghi Effendi was a thorough and conscientious Servant of the Bahá'í Faith. How, then, can any Bahá'í believe he failed in his obligation to appoint his successor? It has been said that he did not consider anyone in the Faith worthy of the "leadership" to follow him. How, then, does the group presently installed in Haifa consider itself worthy and upon what grounds does that group justify its self-imposed "leadership" and "authority"? Shoghi Effendi's writings show he never considered the possibility that the Faith might one day be without a Living Guardian after him. Since he made no statements HIMSELF during his lifetime, then faithful Bahá'ís should not listen to statements coming from unauthorized mouths; -- much less allow themselves to be spiritually guided thereby!


3rd February, 1964. Mason Remey wrote: ". . . the Bahá'í teachers are now called upon to present the Faith as a way of life that will solve the present-day problems which call for a United World. . . peace between the Nations. . . abolition of poverty and crime as well as the elimination of the general misery that is rampant throughout the world today. . .under his (Shoghi Effendi's) Guardianship, (he) has spread the teachings around the world over the six continents but this has been established so quickly that there has not been sufficient time for the principles to take firm root as yet in the hearts and lives of the people, many of whom have very little idea of the deeper and spiritually divine principles of the Faith. This explains the present confusion of thought amongst the Bahá'ís, many of whom do not want a hereditary Guardian of the Faith because such is undemocratic. Many others who are just as confused go along with the crowd -- confusion reigning. In very general terms, such is the present condition of the Bahá'í World Faith. . . " [Writers comment: Suggest anyone investigating the truth read page 145 The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh by Shoghi Effendi].

6th February 1964. Charles Mason Remey wrote: "At times of Crisis at sea, or in war, the last order of the Captain of the ship or of the General in charge of battle must be the first order to be obeyed. All previous orders being temporarily set aside. This same principle should be adhered to by the Bahá'ís under the Guardianship, present conditions being what they are. These conditions are constantly changing and the Guardian's instructions must necessarily be changing to meet the needs which new circumstances may bring." The Third Guardian, Joel Bray Marangella, makes the comment, that when you read what Mason had to say about the type of 'changing situations' in which his latest commands are to be followed, it is quite clear that the situations requiring the issuance of such commands are related in no way to the Guardian's one-time divinely guided APPOINTMENT of a successor in accordance with the terms of the Master's Will. (Charles Mason Remey, Florence, Italy).

24th February, 1964. Mason Remey wrote on back-biting: The first and foremost danger in trying to understand what constitutes backbiting is to be able to distinguish "constructive criticism" from "backbiting" itself. The line of division between the two is very vague and at times can only be drawn by the individual himself, for he alone (and God) knows whether he possesses a pure heart in his actions. Nevertheless, we can establish some rules by which to be guided in order that we do not fall into this unpardonable sin. One sure way of avoiding this ill is to go direct to the person against whom we may have a grievance and to bring up the matter at hand in his own presence. (Charles Mason Remey, Florence, Italy).

27th March 1964. In a letter Mason Remey wrote: ". . . some voices are being circulated expressing concern over my physical and mental ability. I want to reassure the friends that there is no cause for concern on either of these points and that if anyone wishes to visit me here in Florence I shall be pleased to receive them and to talk to them in order to help them eliminate any doubts".

1st April 1964. Extract from a letter of Mason Remey's to all Bahá'í Friends, published in "The Glad Tidings": "Such was the condition of the Faith in America (referring to constant violations) which Shoghi Effendi inherited when he became the First Guardian of the Faith. Shortly thereafter, Shoghi Effendi found himself surrounded by violation rampant in the Holy Land as well as in America and other countries. Ere long, that condition became so "general" throughout the Bahá'í world that it was necessary for the Guardian to practically disperse the Community in Haifa where Rúhíyyih Khánum, her father and but a few others in the Holy Land remained firm. Shoghi Effendi stood alone spiritually, abandoned by all of the members of his immediate family. From amongst them, there was not one whom he considered worthy of succeeding him!" (Naw Ruz Message from Charles Mason Remey).

13th April, 1964. Extract from EL RIDVAN LETTER TO THE BAHA'I WORLD FROM THE GUARDIAN. Charles Mason Remey wrote: "It is my hope that each believer who is troubled in any way regarding the question of Guardianship will feel encouraged to turn to the Guardian or his supporters in their respective areas and through consultation talk things out together. Consultation is encouraged by the Founders of the Faith while discouraged by those who have good reason to fear "open" discussions on these problems, but "individual investigation" is a right given to us by Bahá'u'lláh Himself and no one has the right to stand between a believer and his own conscience. We uphold those rights and encourage others to do likewise".


The Glad. Tidings, Vol. V, No. 3, June 1964 - Rahmat 121 BE


Many people have enquired concerning information on the life and. history of our Second. Guardian. The following is published. in order that this need. may be filled..


Taken from WHO’S WHO in America

(with a few added. explanations)

CHARLES MASON REMEY of Washington, D.C. Architect with a diploma from the French Government; now the Second. Guardian or Head. of the Baha’i World. Faith: was born at Burlington, Iowa, on May 15, 1874, the eldest son of Rear Admiral George Collier Remey, U.S.N., and. Mary Josephine Mason Remey (daughter of Charles Mason, the first Chief Justice of Iowa): He married. Mrs. Gertrude Heim Klemm in Paris, July 17, 1931, who died. at Washington, D.C., August 5, 1932: Student Norfolk Academy, Norfolk, Virginia, 1886-1889: Columbian Preparatory School and. Columbian College, Washington, D.C., 1889-1892: Cornell University 1893-1896: Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1898-1902: Instructor in Descriptive Geometry 1904-1905; Assistant Professor of Architecture 1905-1908, George Washington University: Made a special study of Oriental Architecture touring the five continents and. around. the world, 1909-1910, and. later in the interests of The Bahá’i World. Faith: Appointed. by Abdu’l-Bahá, the Head. of the Faith in 1920, to design the Baha’i Temple to be erected. on Mount Carmel: Architect of the Bahá’i Archives Building upon Mount Carmel, Israel: The First Guardian accepted. his design for the temple for Teheran, Iran: Architect of the Bahá’i Temples recently built at Kampala, Africa, and. Sydney, Australia: Founder, Organizer and. Architect for the movement to build. the National Church and Shrine of the U.S.A. at Washington, D.C., to carry-out General Washington’s intention of erecting there a non-sectarian church for National purposes such as: Public Prayer, Thanksgiving, Funeral Orations, etc., which activity was interrupted. by World War II and. since then has been in abeyance: His most recent architectural work in the Remeum at Pohick Church Glebe, Fairfax County, Virginia (a memorial to his parents and. their forebears that is a family mausoleum): Patron in Perpetuity of the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Member of the Cosmos and. Chevy Chase Clubs of Washington: A past Commander of the D.C. Commandery of the Loyal Legion of the U.S.A Member of The Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts: Military Order of Foreign Wars of the U.S.A.: Imperial Order of the Dragon: Society of Sons of the Revolution: Society of American Wars of the U.S.: Naval and. Military Order of the Spanish American War: General Society of Colonial Wars: Military Order of the Caraboa: Naval Order of the U.S.: Society of Mayflower Descendants: The Huguenot Society of Washington: The Order of the Founders and Patriots of America: The Society of the Descendants of the Colonial Clergy: National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution: A director of The American Peace Society: Member of the Naval Historical Foundation of the U.S.: Honorary Member Veterans of Foreign Wars: Former member of the French and. Swiss Alpine Clubs: Author of Architectural Compositions for Bahá’i Shrines and. Temples in the Oriental and. Occidental Styles and. a number of other works on the Activities of the Bahá’i World Faith: Present address American Express Company, Florence, Italy.

May 15, 1964

April 1964. Convention Message - From the Guardian, Mason Remey. Extract: "This struggle cannot be won by individuals standing alone; they must be won by the entire body of the believers functioning in accordance with the confirmations of the Holy Spirit brought to the world by the Manifestation of Bahá'u'lláh– the working of which is explained by the Master 'Abdu'l-Bahá in His Will and Testament and put into working order by the First Guardian of the Faith, Shoghi Effendi Our present day task is to uphold, defend and continue all that has been previously accomplished."

13th April, 1964. From a letter to the Bahá'í World by Mason Remey: Extract. Too often in the past, the friends misunderstood the station of "Guardian" and the institution of "Guardianship". As a result, their submission to the Guardian and the Guardianship was made in the form of a "compromise." In other words, they served and paid allegiance to a system in which they had not complete faith and to which they gave service either under "pressure" or in fear of reprimand and possible expulsion from offices held or loss of financial support received. Thus we can readily appreciate the "natural" reaction to such a regime upon the death of the First Guardian in 1957; - those most subjected to the "pressures" and self-imposed hypocrisy in their service to the Guardianship were the most strongly opposed to the continuation of the institution. These were the ones who responded "naturally" to the opportunity (provided for them by the lack of an anticipated conventional Will and Testament by Shoghi Effendi) to do away with that institution which caused them so much personal anguish while serving the Cause under the ministry of the first Guardian of the Faith!

(From Ridvan Letter to the Bahá'i World from the Guardian, Charles Mason Remey).

June 1964. Extract from an article on VIOLATION by Mason Remey: Spiritual protection from all evil lies in the purity of heart of the individual. This is true for Bahá'ís as well as for non Bahá'ís It is true whether the Bahá'í knows the teachings of the Faith or not. Just as the sheep know the "voice" of their True Shepherd and will not be deceived by another voice, so will the "voice" of the Pure Heart recognize its True Shepherd and not be deceived by another. Thus it is that the quest for a "pure, kindly and radiant heart" is the first counsel given to us by Bahá'u'lláh. . . anyone who follows the interpretations of un-authorised persons should not consider himself an "Orthodox" Bahá'í. . . .

9th August 1964. Mason Remey (age 90) issued a Statement on the Infallibility of the Guardian, in which the following extracts were written:

"The Guardian of the Faith represents the Hereditary Spiritual Head of the Faith. It is the Institution of "Guardianship" which he heads that is endowed with "infallibility". This infallibility reaches the Guardian through an unbroken line of successorship which began with the appointment of 'Abdu'l-Bahá as the Center of the Covenant by Bahá'u'lláh, and then of Shoghi Effendi as first Guardian by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.. The seat of infallibility can only be vested in one living person -The Guardian - in order that dissension, discord and differences of opinion may be avoided. This infallibility cannot be shared save when the Guardian delegates his representative to substitute for him as Head of the Universal House of Justice..........


21st August, 1964. Extract from a letter to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'is of the U.S.A. from Charles Mason Remey: "As the mis-led friends study the Baha'i Teachings (as given by Bahá'u'lláh and later expounded by 'Abdu'l-Baha) along with the Will and Testament of the Master, they will surely realize that there MUST be a Guardian to head the Faith, and that none other than Mason Remey could possibly be the second Guardian for he was appointed by Shoghi Effendi to a position which follows a natural line of progressive steps leading to the President of the Universal House of Justice! No one can change this, or refute it spiritually. When that appointment was made and announced, no one opposed it. Opposition and denial only came later by those who, for their own personal prestige, succeeded in convincing the Bahá'is throughout the world that God had ended the Institution of the living Guardianship of the Faith."


"The Guardian of the Faith announces to the Bahá'í World his decision to create the Second International Bahá'í Council. This Council will exist in name only until conditions in the Faith require it to function as a Body. All powers vested in the appointed members of this Council are "potential".

"In the event the Guardian should be prevented from appointing his successor to the Guardianship of the Faith, the President of this Council will become the Third Guardian of the Faith. If for any reason the President of the Council cannot assume this position, then the first Vice President will move into that position, and if he should be prevented from assuming the responsibilities of Guardianship then the second Vice President will move into that position and so on down the line of Vice Presidents in the order of their appointment by the Guardian.

President of the Council Joel Bray Marangella.

First Vice President Monir Derakhchan

Second Vice President Nawazish Au Siyyid

Third Vice President John B. Byers

Fourth Vice President James Barrett

Fifth Vice President Jean Donat

Sixth Vice President Bernard Fillon

Seventh Vice President Ch. Taj-ud-Din

Eighth Vice President Clarence M. McClymonds.

"The list of appointments as they appear above will remain in effect in their numerical order until further additions or rearrangements may be made by the Guardian".

"We are living in the "Latter Days" of the Kingdom of man upon earth. These are uncertain times. Mankind is surrounded by diverse catastrophic happenings; -- none of which can be predicted with precision. Thus to meet any conditions brought about as a result of any such catastrophe, provisions are being made for a number of "potential" successors to the Guardianship. In this way the continuation of this divinely inspired Institution will be guaranteed"

(Writers comment: "It is worthy of note that the two individuals who, since the passing of Mason Remey have claimed to be his successor (Donald Harvey and Jacques Soghomonian) are not included in the list of successors named in the above letter.")

16th October 1964. Extract from a letter of Mason Remey: The urgent call now is that we propagate the Faith, that there be numbers of us under the Guardianship to carry the organisation of the Second International Bahá'í Council through the coming terrible judgment of the Lord . . . so that when the New Day of the Kingdom Triumphant has come, these few will be able and organised to serve Him.

4th November, 1964. From Mason Remey. Some people still cling to the report that went about that there was no one worthy of being Shoghi Effendi's successor. So far as my personal feelings are concerned, I don't at all feel that I was ever worthy of such honor, never-the-less, he did appoint me President of the First International Bahá'í Council so I had to assume this responsibility and do the best I can. It was he who appointed me and not myself. The sans-Guardians contend that Shoghi Effendi ended the Guardianship because there was no one for him to appoint In the "Administrative Order" by Shoghi Effendi, he dwells upon the necessity of the Guardianship. Nowhere in any of his writings did he ever suggest that the Guardianship would ever be changed from 'by inheritance by appointment' to that of an elective system that the believers could institute and carry on with the prospect of attaining any Divine Confirmation comparable with that of the Divine Order established in the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá."

Late 1964.

With his appointment by Mason Remey to the presidency of the Second International Bahá’í Council with its obvious significance (this, being the manner in which Mason Remey had inherited the Guardianship from Shoghi Effendi as the appointed President of the first International Bahá’í Council), Joel Bray Marangella decided that the time had come to break the seal of the letter posted to him by Mason in December 1961. He, therefore, journeyed to Switzerland towards the end of 1964 where the letter had been deposited in a bank safety-deposit box for safekeeping and opened the letter. This letter read as follows:

Dear Joel, This is to tell you to tell the Bahá'í World that I appoint you to be the third Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith according to the Will and Testament of the Master, 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Mason, Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith.

Joel said upon reading the above statement of appointment, he was first struck by the fact that it was addressed to me and not to the believers and that it commissioned me "to tell" the Bahá'í World that I was the third Guardian. The question in his mind was "when shall I tell the believers?" He then considered it should not be made till after the passing of Mason Remey.

13th December, 1964. Extract from a letter by Mason Remey. "The time has come when naught but purity of purpose and undivided allegiance to the Faith will bring the confirmations of the Holy Spirit upon the friends supporting the hereditary Second Guardianship."

28th January, 1965. In a letter from Mason Remey to the believers he said: "The infallibility of the Guardianship does not mean that the Guardian (as a person) can do no wrong – it means that when he speaks ex cathedra all believers should support him instantly and without question– Thus the unity of the Faith is maintained. . . In a Democracy the people make their own laws and then try to enforce them. At best this can create but temporary peace that is not lasting. The Kingdom of God is not a Democracy. It is an Autocracy..........." God, the creator of all things visible and invisible, made and established His laws in the beginning."

April 1965. Extract from Ridvan Message to the Orthodox Bahá'ís from Mason Remey: "Joy to the World, The Lord is Come! This is the Message that the friends of the Bahá'í Faith have for the world and which the Guardian of the Faith exhorts the believers to go forth and proclaim and explain to all who will listen."

June 1965. In a letter to the Bahá'ís under the Hereditary Guardianship, Mason Remey wrote: "Rúhíyyih Khánum who is in command at Haifa is a smart woman and uses her head.. She and her people are thoroughly aroused and fearful of their position. . . a cooling off time and a discussion of the situation may now appeal to some of them".

22nd July 1965. Extract from an article by Mason Remey in "The Glad Tidings" (October 1965). The latest news I have from Iran is that there are Local Spiritual Assemblies in both Teheran and Esphahan functioning and that they acknowledge the second Guardian of the Faith and that the entire matter of the continuing Guardianship is now being generally discussed by the friends throughout Iran.

19th August, 1965. Mason Remey wrote to his followers in Colombo, Ceylon: "Be particularly kind to those Bahá'ís who do not want a Guardian but, lovingly, let them know that you deplore the opposition to the Guardianship. If they refuse to listen to you, don't press them. Pray for them. Your spiritual attitude may penetrate the hearts of the sincere ones".

In 1965 when Joel Bray Marangella visited Mason Remey in Florence, Italy, Mason instructed Joel to announce to the Bahá'í World the activation of the second International Bahá'í Council.

October 1965 Charles Mason Remey instructed Joel Marangella to activate the second International Bahá'í Council under his presidency. This was announced in the "Glad Tidings", (the Title of the newsletter at that time) of October 1965, on the cover page, under the heading, "Council Assumes Task." As the Council had actually been ACTIVATED, this meant that it automatically brought about CHARLES MASON REMEY'S ABDICATION OF THE GUARDIANSHIP, with JOEL BRAY MARANGELLA BECOMING HIS SUCCESSOR. In his own Proclamation of November 12, 1969, The Third Guardian of the Baha'i Faith, Joel Bray Marangella wrote: "Whether Mason Remey, himself at that time, grasped the implications of his instructions to me to activate the Council is not known to me. If he did not, however, a subsequent announcement which he directed I prepare and release to the faithful Bahá'ís indicated that he had turned the affairs of the Faith over to me." This was in a letter dated February 18, 1966 from Charles Mason Remey which stated:

"I am turning the affairs of the Faith over to you as the President of the Second Bahá'í International Council to handle this for me- you having the other members of the International Council to assist you . . . from now on I will leave you free to conduct the affairs of the Faith, I making suggestions when necessary."

4th February, 1974, At 8.45 p.m. in the evening while living in Florence, Italy, Charles Mason Remey passed to the Abha Kingdom. Members of the Orthodox Bahá'í Faith were urged to hold fitting memorial services.

Thus Charles Mason Remey's career came to a close, with his death as a self-banished exile, at odds with the wife of the deceased first Guardian, Rúhíyyih Khánum, the daughter of the very woman, May Maxwell, who had brought him into the Faith, and of course, at loggerheads with the 26 Hands of the Cause.

At the time of Mason Remey's death he was only three months short of 100 years of age. He came into the Faith in 1900 and travelled the world bringing the Bahá'í Faith to people of all nationalities. Many countries, and places he visited were at the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá who eulogized him referring to him many times as "O my dear son!" He constantly praised him for his firmness in the Covenant, and purity of spirit. In 1950 Shoghi Effendi had called him to live in the Holy Land which must have been a great sacrifice. Shoghi Effendi was so pleased with his service to the Cause he appointed him President of the International Bahá'í Council, [Writers comment: This to my knowledge is the first and only time that Shoghi Effendi appointed a person to a specific position] and shortly afterwards made him a Hand of the Cause of God. Following the passing of Shoghi Effendi, Mason Remey was appointed to serve as one of the nine "Custodian Hands", but seeing that they were clearly violating the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, he refused to sign their statements and returned to the U.S.A. From there he prepared and sent his Proclamation of Guardianship to the National Spiritual Assembly of the U.S.A. and the Hands of the Cause of God. The proclamation that he had so carefully prepared reached only a mere handful of believers, as it was rejected by the N.S.A. and the Hands and never further distributed by that N.S.A. throughout the Bahá’í World as he had anticipated.

After serving the Cause of God so diligently and faithfully for 60 years he, and any who followed him were declared Covenant Breakers, and other Bahá'ís were instructed not to communicate with him, or any of his followers in any way whatsoever. In the "Ministry of the Custodians" published at the Bahá'í World Center, Hand of the Cause, Rúhíyyih Khánum clearly stated that one of their (the 27 Hands of the Cause) biggest problems was "How to assume the reins of authority, with no document to support us"! So without any authority they had declared Charles Mason Remey, and any of his followers Covenant Breakers, and usurped power to run the Bahá'í Faith! What a tragic story.

However, those believers, the Orthodox Bahá'ís, who are truly firm in the Covenant, and followers of a living Guardian, now Joel Bray Marangella, continue to gain support and followers to build a "Divinely Inspired" Faith as per 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament.

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